include writing job descriptions, creating feedback systems, redesigning incentive or pay systems, using process engineering, making cultural changes, and using change management and information or knowledge engineering ( Nilson 1999).
Measuring the overall success of the project determines whether initial goals have been met and the business issue resolved. Effective evaluation starts in the analysis phase when the decision is made about what to accept as evidence that business goals have been met ( Fuller and Farrington 1999; Swanson 1994). During the evaluation phase, performance consultants identify the evaluation criteria used to measure whether project goals have been achieved ( Brinkerhoff 1998). They are expected to perform a number of evaluative actions such as conducting peer reviews, requesting client reviews, and establishing a feedback mechanism from members of the group or groups whose performance is being analyzed and modified ( Fuller and Farrington 1999).
Performance consulting is by its very nature a spontaneous activity. Effective performance consultants adopt a planning approach that enables them to anticipate and solve potential problems. Such an approach frames a long-term process that requires various members of the organization, who possess different orientations, to develop a common view of the firm and its future. Performance consulting requires a thorough understanding of the organization and its operations, strategic planning that emphasizes the importance of identifying goals, determining organizational values, and action planning. Performance consultants' credibility relies on asking appropriate questions and finding acceptable answers.