can isolate areas of concern or breakdown. Finally, an HRD professional can identify recommendations or solutions in order to neutralize negative impact. When used this way, the organizational effectiveness framework is an excellent tool in analyzing complex organizational and performance problems.
Gilley, Boughton, and Maycunich ( 1999) suggest using the organizational effectiveness framework during organizational, managerial, performance, and needs analysis activities to identify gaps between current and desired expectations (see Chapter 15). They believe that OD change agents can use the framework to conduct brainstorming activities to identify factors that contribute to performance problems or organizational breakdowns. Additionally, the framework can be used to assign areas of inquiry during the problem identification phase of a performance consulting project. When used to isolate potential problems, define relationships between and among various components, or identify intervention possibilities, the applications are endless.
Beer ( 1983) defined organizational development consulting as a systemwide process of data collection, diagnosis, action planning, intervention, and evaluation aimed at (1) enhancing congruence between organizational structure, processes, strategy, people, and culture; (2) developing new and creative organizational solutions; and (3) developing the organization's self-renewing capacity. OD consulting occurs only when organization members work collaboratively with change agents (OD consultants) using behavioral science theory, research, and technology. In short, OD consulting focuses upon improving overall organizational effectiveness by developing innovative approaches to problem solving and by establishing a "survivalist attitude" in a continuously evolving environment of technological advancement and cultural change. Consequently, organizational development consulting can be viewed as both a philosophy and a collection of methods for organizational improvement. Both are characterized by an emphasis on collaborative participation in data collection, diagnosis, planning, intervention, and evaluation in order to improve the entire firm.