Religion and religion and politics offer a vast array of literature that explores the institutional Catholic Church as well as the issues of religion and society generally. To understand the Church's role in the Latin American context, no better place exists to start than the work of Daniel H. Levine, who provides an evolving theoretical argument sensitive to the linkages between politics and religion while at the same time recognizing the special qualities that religion poses for the social scientist. His comparative study, Religions and Politics in Latin America: The Catholic Church in Venezuela and Colombia ( Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1981), lays out some essential arguments that are followed up in, among other articles, his "Religion and Politics: Dimensions of Renewal," Thought 59, no. 233 ( June 1984): 117-135, and "From Church and State to Religion and Politics and Back Again," World Affairs 150 (Fall 1987): 93-108. Two other country-specific works of great value are Scott Mainwaring, The Catholic Church and Politics in Brazil, 1916-1985 ( Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1986), and Brian H. Smith, The Church and Politics in Chile: Challenges to Modern Catholicism ( Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1982). Two additional general works are equally important to the broad picture: Edward L. Cleary 's Crisis and Change: The Church in Latin America Today (Maryknoll: Orbis Books, 1985), and his excellent coedited work with Hannah Stewart-Gambino, Conflict and Competition: The Latin American Church in a Changing Environment ( Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner, 1992), especially Cleary's chapter "Politics and Religion--Crisis, Constraints, and Restructuring," 197)- 221. A path-breaking work for its time and still highly relevant to contemporary research is Ivan Vallier, Catholicism, Social Control, and Modernization in Latin America (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1970). The other general works from this same period are David Mutchler, The Church as a Political Factor in Latin America ( New York: Praeger, 1971), and Thomas G. Sanders, "The Politics of Catholicism in Latin America," Journal of Inter-American Studies and World Affairs 24 ( May 1982): 241-258. Finally, Margaret Crahan provides flesh insights in her overview of church-state relations in the 1990s, "Church and State in Latin America: Assassinating Some Old and New Stereotypes," Daedalus 120, no. 3 (Summer 1991): 131-158, as do Cornelia Butler Flora and Rosario Bello in "The Impact of the Catholic Church on National Level Change in Latin America," Journal of Church and State 31, no. 3 (Autumn 1989): 527-542.
Among the most useful non-Latin American literature on religion and politics are Gerhard Lenski , The Religious Factor: A Sociological Study of Religion's Impact on Politics and Family Life ( Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1963); Philip E. Hammond, "The Conditions for Civil Religion: A Comparison of the United States and Mexico," in Varieties ofCivil Religion