Animation, Caricature, and Gag and Political Cartoons in the United States and Canada: An International Bibliography

By John A. Lent | Go to book overview

France and grew up in Paris (where I was an avid reader of comics, a fact Couperie had been made aware of by a mutual friend), and at that time I was an interpreter with the U.S. Department of State. The Club's roster was quite impressive and included such luminaries as filmmakers Alain Resnais and Chris Marker, writers Alain Robbe-Grillet and Edgar Morin, press tycoons Pierre Lazareff and Paul Winkler, and many other intellectuals and artists. I felt honored to have been asked to join their ranks, and of course accepted.

At the time of my joining, the Club had already engaged in a respectable number of activities. It published a sizeable quarterly bulletin (they were not yet called "fanzines"), Giff-Wiff, named after a mythical animal in Harold Knerr Katzenjammer Kids; held reunions, and reprinted full episodes from comics of the past, such as Flash Gordon, Popeye, and Mandrake. My early efforts for the Club included a quarterly column about the goings-on in the American world of comics, as well as a number of articles for Giff-Wiff on American comics, including the first essay ever written on Pogo in France (and I believe in Europe): a translation was later published in The Best of Pogo ( 1982). I was often aided and abetted in my activities by my brother Pierre, then a graduate student at Columbia University.

More importantly I had established contacts with American fans, who had also organized and were even then holding conventions and issuing fanzines, and with professional institutions such as the Newspaper Comics Council (now the Newspaper Features Council) and the National Cartoonists Society. Especially rewarding were the meetings with those American cartoonists whose work I had long admired: Milton Caniff, Harold Foster, Walt Kelly, Al Capp, and many others. A particular highlight occurred in 1964 when, along with Alain Resnais and other visiting French fans, we met for the first time with Burne Hogarth at the School of Visual Arts which he had founded, and persuaded him to rejoin the world of comic art which he had quit in disgust over a decade earlier. During that time I also had the opportunity of spreading the good word on a number of American campuses, such as Columbia and Fairleigh Dickinson.

This first (or "getting to know you") phase culminated in a series of happenings at the 1964 New York World's Fair, in which American cartoonists and European fans and scholars jointly took part. Slowly American media and public opinion began to view comics and their creators in a new, more favorable, light. It is a tribute to the enthusiasm of all concerned--professionals and fans alike--that all this was accomplished in the astonishingly short span of one year. Clearly we had touched a public nerve, and the times now seemed right to have the comics accepted as a genuinely original art form.

In that same period, activity in defense and appreciation of comic art had reached a fever pitch in France also. Two organizations were now vying for the attention of the public in this domain, and the competition resulted in an outpouring of manifestations, publications, and exhibitions in Paris and the provinces. "Dix Millions d'Images" was the name of an exhibit held at the French Society of Photography: consisting of large blow-ups of panels taken from the comics, it was the first retrospective of its kind in Europe and heralded a new way of looking at comic art. Further exhibitions ensued based on the rapidly expanding interchanges between France and the U.S. There were one-man shows devoted to Burne Hogarth and Milton Caniff, as well as an exhibition of

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Animation, Caricature, and Gag and Political Cartoons in the United States and Canada: An International Bibliography
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Recent Titles In Bibliographies and Indexes in Popular Culture ii
  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • A Time There Was, or the Age of Innocence ix
  • Preface xiii
  • 1 - Global and Comparative Perspectives 1
  • 2 - Canada 21
  • 3 - United States: Resources 41
  • 4 - United States: Comic Art 57
  • 5 - United States: Gag, Illustrative, Magazine Cartoons 107
  • 6 - United States: Animation 187
  • 7 - United States: Caricature 273
  • 8 - United States: Political Cartoons 287
  • Author Index 363
  • Subject Index 393
  • About the Compiler 417
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