Creating Peace in Sri Lanka: Civil War and Reconciliation

By Robert I. Rotberg | Go to book overview

to build the road to negotiation, and an official high leverage process for negotiation of substantive issues.


Notes
1.
The authors are affiliated with the Program on International Conflict Analysis and Resolution (PICAR). PICAR has been working to foster problem-solving dialogue in unofficial efforts to help resolve the protracted ethnic conflict between the government of Sri Lanka and the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam since 1994. PICAR tries to advance the understanding of international and inter- ethnic conflicts, and to develop interactive, problem-solving processes that can be effective in managing or resolving such conflicts. The analysis presented here is based upon meetings with more than 100 Sinhalese, Tamil, and Muslim officials, academics, journalists, civic leaders, and others, over four years. The confidentiality of those contacts is maintained by keeping references to them general and by avoiding attribution to any individual source.
2.
David Little, Sri Lanka: The Invention of Enmity ( Washington, 1994).
3.
Ibid.
4.
Roger Fisher, William Ury, and Bruce Patton, Getting to Yes: Negotiating Without Giving In ( New York, 1991).
5.
John Burton, Conflict: Resolution and Provention ( London, 1990); Herbert C. Kelman, "Informational Mediation by the Scholar/Practitioner," in Jacob Bercovitch and Jeffrey Z. Rubin (eds.), Mediation in International Relations: Multiple Approaches to Conflict Management ( New York, 1992), 64-96; Ronald J. Fisher, "Needs Theory, Social Identity, and an Eclectic Model of Conflict," in Burton, Conflict.
6.
Gordon W. Allport, The Nature of Prejudice ( Reading, Mass., 1979); B. Silverstein and Catherine Flamenbaum , "Biases in the Perception and Cognition of the Actions of Enemies," Journal of Social Sciences, XLV ( 1989), 51-72.
7.
David Heradstveit, The Arab-Israeli Conflict: Psychological Obstacles to Peace ( Oslo, 1981).
8.
Allport, The Nature of Prejudice; Donna M. Desforges, Lord C. G., S. L. Ramsey, J. A. Mason, M. D. Leeuwn, S. C. West, and M. R. Lepper, "Effects of Structured Cooperative Contact on Changing Negative Attitudes Toward Stigmatized Social Groups," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, LX ( 1991), 531-44.
9.
Desforges, Lord, Ramsey, Mason, Leeuwn, West, and Lepper, "Effects of Structured Cooperative Contact."
10.
Jacob Berkovitch, "The Structure and Diversity of Mediation in International Relations," in Berkovitch and Rubin, Mediation in International Relations, 1-29.
11.
Jeffrey Z. Rubin, "Models of Conflict Management," Journal of Social Issues, L ( 1994), 33-45.
12.
Berkovitch, "The Structure and Diversity of Mediation."
13.
Saadia Touval and I. William Zartman, "International Mediation: Conflict Resolution and Power Politics," Journal of Social Issues, XLI ( 1985), 157-80.
14.
Berkovitch, "The Structure and Diversity of Mediation."
15.
Ibid.
16.
Kelman, "Informal Mediation by the Scholar/Practitioner."

-156-

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