The judicial power shall extend to all cases, in law and equity, arising under this Constitution, the laws of the United States, and . . . to controversies to which the United States shall be a party. . . .1
The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated. . . . 2
No person shall be deprived of life, liberty, or property without due process of law. . . .3
No state shall . . . deprive any person of life, liberty, or property without due process of law. . . .4
These principles provide the constitutional authority for courts to review actions of administrative officials. In addition, the Federal Tort Claims Act of 19465 allows the federal government to be sued in the same manner and to the same extent as a private individual, with a few specified exceptions, thus establishing both judicial review and the possibility of financial compensation for those injured by acts of administrative agencies.
vAt the state and national levels, the systems of checks and balances among the three branches of government make administrators judicially accountable to a hierarchy of trial and appellate courts. In the federal government, trial courts for most cases are the 94 district courts. Citizens may file suits in these courts against the United States government seeking to