Progress and Poverty: An Economic and Social History of Britain, 1700-1850

By M. J. Daunton | Go to book overview

The radicals had a point, but the alternative was not necessarily without its problems. The last serious famine in Britain was in Scotland in 1697-9; in France, there were sixteen nation-wide famines between 1700 and 1789, and a serious subsistence crisis as late as 1819. In nineteenth-century France, the survival of small farms was at the expense of rigid controls on fertility in order to prevent pressure on resources, so that there was virtually no population growth; and food prices were maintained by tariffs. Ricardo was right to suggest that rent formed a rising share of income, and Cobbett was correct in his belief that many small farmers and labourers were better off in the mid-eighteenth century. But could the agrarian system of the early eighteenth century feed a rapidly growing population, and avoid a subsistence crisis such as Malthus feared, without a sizeable increase in rents and a consolidation of farms? Britain achieved high labour productivity in agriculture, allowing it to release labour and feed the rising population, without a disastrous increase in food prices which would lead to a collapse of wages and a 'positive' check on population. Of course, gains in output in the late eighteenth century were hard won, as agriculture hit the ceiling of yields and farming moved to marginal land. But was any other response possible in the face of accelerating population growth at the end of the eighteenth century which threatened prosperity and economic growth? Far from being necessary to provide a work-force for farming and industry, population growth was a potential threat which placed pressure on resources, leading to increased prices and rents; agriculture was able to release labour to meet the needs of industry. Population growth threatened the onset of a 'stationary state', and agriculture in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries was only able to supply food by dint of great efforts. Its success was that it was able to feed the population without a subsistence crisis or a serious erosion of real wages.


Conclusion

Changes in agrarian society had wide implications. The comparative advantages of light and clay soils affected the location of rural industry, which in turn had demographic consequences, for the emergence of industry in the countryside weakened constraints on the formation of families which were imposed by the need to acquire a holding. In districts where agriculture continued to dominate, the reduction of the population to dependent wage labour could remove any incentive to delay marriage in order to serve an apprenticeship or to acquire a few animals, and so ease constraints on population growth. Agricultural change could weaken restraints upon population growth, which in turn placed pressure on the supply of food. The increased demand for food, to which agriculture was able to respond only sluggishly, meant higher food prices and a check to the

-56-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Progress and Poverty: An Economic and Social History of Britain, 1700-1850
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Acknowledgements vii
  • Contents ix
  • List of Figures xi
  • List of Tables xiii
  • Chapter I - Introduction: the Possibilities of Growth 1
  • Notes 19
  • Further Reading 21
  • Part I - Agriculture and Rural Society 23
  • Chapter 2 - Agricultural Production: the Limits of Growth? 25
  • Conclusion 56
  • Notes 57
  • Further Reading 58
  • Chapter 3 - The Rise of the Great Estates and the Decline of the Yeoman 61
  • Notes 87
  • Further Reading 88
  • Chapter 4 - Open Fields and Enclosure: the Demise of Commonality 92
  • Notes 117
  • Further Reading 119
  • Part II - Industry and Urban Society 123
  • Chapter 5 - Diversities of Industrialization 125
  • Notes 145
  • Further Reading 146
  • Chapter 6 - The Domestic System of Manufactures 148
  • Conclusion 169
  • Notes 170
  • Further Reading 171
  • Chapter 7 - The Coming of the Factory 201
  • Chapter 8 - Furnaces, Forges, and Mines 206
  • Conclusion 232
  • Further Reading 234
  • Chapter 9 - Capital and Credit: Financing Industrialization 260
  • Further Reading 261
  • Part III - Integrating the Economy 265
  • Chapter 10 - Integration and Specialization 267
  • Notes 283
  • Further Reading 283
  • Chapter II - Transport 285
  • Conclusion 314
  • Notes 314
  • Chapter 12 - Merchants and Marketing 318
  • Conclusion 338
  • Notes 338
  • Further Reading 339
  • Chapter 13 - Banks and Money 342
  • Conclusion 357
  • Notes 358
  • Further Reading 359
  • Further Reading 361
  • Further Reading 382
  • Further Reading 383
  • Part IV - Poverty, Prosperity, and Population 385
  • Chapter 15 - Births, Marriages, and Deaths 387
  • Notes 415
  • Further Reading 416
  • Chapter 16 - The Standard of Living and the Social History of Wages 441
  • Chapter 17 - Poor Relief and Charity 447
  • Notes 471
  • Further Reading 472
  • Part V - Public Policy and the State 475
  • Chapter 18 - The Visible Hand: the State and the Economy 477
  • Notes 502
  • Further Reading 503
  • Chapter 19 - Taxation and Public Finance 507
  • Further Reading 530
  • Further Reading 530
  • Notes 557
  • Further Reading 558
  • Chapter 21 - Conclusion 565
  • Notes 566
  • Chronology 567
  • Statistical Appendix 573
  • Index 591
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 620

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.