when it was a way of sustaining the rule of the landed ruling class after the franchise had been extended and education introduced.
The creation of a national economy and a sense of national identity were controversial, contested processes with a political dimension. They involved, amongst other processes, a reshaping of the land law, a dismantling of market regulations, an abandonment of apprenticeship and wage assessments, the formulation of laws on credit. These changes were subjects of dispute and contention, which raise the whole issue of the nature of the British state. And how important were the reductions in transport costs and market imperfections? The driving force of economic growth, in the opinion of some historians, was an increase in demand, whether from exports or at home. But could it be that changes on the side of supply were more important, by reducing costs, which allowed British manufacturers to capture foreign markets and expand domestic sales within the existing demand schedule?
Black, I., "'Geography, Political Economy, and the Circulation of Finance Capital in Early Industrial England'", Journal of Historical Geography, 15 ( 1989).
Braggs , A., Victorian Cities ( 1964).
Colley, L., Britons: Forging the Nation, 1707-1837 ( New Haven, Conn., 1992).
----- "'Whose Nation? Class and National Consciousness in Britain, 1750-1830'", Past and Present, 113 ( 1986).