consequently rise, and could be further boosted by legislation to maintain wages. Machinery should be controlled and the benefits directed to workers as well as employers, by imposing a tax on machines. Free trade and the growth of export markets were seen as threats which would lead to low wages and insecurity. The structure of demand, Gast realized, was a political matter which rested upon the power to determine the structure of taxation and regulation of the labour market. The failure of the demand schedule for industrial goods to shift at the end of the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, as a result of a redistribution of income within Britain and a deterioration in the terms of trade overseas, meant that the gloom of Malthus and Ricardo about the prospects of long-term growth is understandable. It was only after about 1820 that the dangers of a fall in the level of domestic demand were overcome, and real wages started to rise.