But, O ye favoured countrymen of Washington! Your republic is not yet lost; there is still hope. The arm that wrought your political salvation, is still stretched out to save; then hear his voice and live! Hear the voice of the Divine Founder of your Republic! 'Little children, love one another.' Hear his voice from the lips of his servant Washington, 'Above all things hold dear your national union!'
PARSON WEEMS, 1800
IN HIS now all but forgotten Sketches of the Principles of Government, published in 1793, Nathaniel Chipman expressed in admirable fashion the view of patriotism prevalent in the early decades of the Republic. Original nature, explained this wise and learned Federalist judge of frontier Vermont, includes certain passions or appetites, to be thought of as mere capacities rather than as fully developed traits. Among these is a capacity for the social sense, the great gift which the Creator bestowed on man to check envy, hatred, malice, and revenge -- deep-rooted impulses involved in his fall. Man's social sense or consciousness of a kind of "individuality of himself in the aggregate" is, if not the very germ of every social attachment, the thing that gives strength to attachments. Among these, Chipman continued, love of community ranks high by reason of its early appearance among primitive peoples.To fit man for society and civil government the Creator has incorporated this passion deep and strong in the very nature of man.1
Sixty years later, on the threshold of the Civil War, the Reverend Caleb S. Henry, an erudite Episcopalian who had taken a prominent part in the peace movement, expressed a similar idea of the____________________