The Revolt of Martin Luther

By Robert Herndon Fife | Go to book overview

24
THE RISING TIDE OF REVOLT

"ALL Switzerland, Constance, Augsburg and a good part of Italy depend on Luther." Thus wrote the Freiburg jurist Ulrich Zasius to Konrad Mutianus at the beginning of December, 1519.1 For half a year the energetic Froben had been diligently sending out his first edition of Luther's Latin works from the Basel press. Early in the year six hundred copies had gone to France and to Spain; the book had also become widely known in the Netherlands and England, and a Pavia colleague of Froben's had undertaken to distribute it among Italian scholars.2 By February, 1519, the edition was almost exhausted, and before the end of May an augmented second edition, issued in that month, was already sought in vain on the Basel bookstalls.3 A year later Konrad Pellicanus, then guardian of the Franciscan convent in the Swiss city and later an associate of Zwingli, writes to Martin that reprints of his German writings are appearing there,4 and that brothers of the Order of St. Francis are translating his exposition of the Ten Commandments into German and making it the subject of sermons to appreciative audiences. While he does not sympathize with Erasmus's indiscriminate attacks on monasticism, Pellicanus urges Luther to persist in his criticism of its abuses.

The Swiss cleric was only one of the earlier witnesses to the widening of Luther's contacts as the spring of 1520 opened. The spread of his fame brought a rapid expansion in the circle of his correspondents, which included clerics in Constance, Ulm, Augsburg, Breslau, the East Mark, his childhood home of Mansfeld, far-away Paris, and, before summer, representatives of the knightly class. His interchanges with the humanists Crotus, Erasmus, Wolfgang Capito, and Ulrich von Hutten became active, and though unfor-

____________________
1
Karl Gillert, ed., "Der Briefwechsel des Conradius Mutianus"," Geschichtsquellen der Provinz Sachsen, XVIII, 11, 256.
2
r from Johann Froben to Luther, Feb. 14, 1519, W AB, I, 332.
4
March 16, 1520. W AB, II, 65, ll. 26 ff.

-463-

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The Revolt of Martin Luther
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Introduction vii
  • Contents xi
  • 1 - Early Days at Home and School 3
  • 2 - The Schoolboy Abroad 20
  • 3 - Early Years at the University 32
  • 4 - The Scholastic Learning 47
  • 5 - Entrance into the Cloister 66
  • 6 - The Novitiate Year 79
  • 7 - Brother Martin of the Eremites 91
  • 8 - Student of Theology 104
  • 9 - The Young Lecturer 128
  • 10 - The Journey to Rome 161
  • 11 - Professor and Preacher at Wittenberg 179
  • 12 - Interpreter of Augustine and Paul 203
  • 13 - The Final Break with Scholasticism 224
  • 14 - The Attack on Indulgences 245
  • 15 - In Battle with the Dominicans 272
  • 16 - The Hearing at Augsburg 288
  • 17 - An Attempt at Compromise 305
  • 18 - The Leipzig Disputation the Prelude 327
  • 19 - The Leipzig Disputation the Combat 349
  • 20 - The Leipzig Disputation the Aftermath 368
  • 21 - A Battle of Polemics 395
  • 22 - Humanistic Friends and Allies 415
  • 23 - Growth as Teacher and Preacher 436
  • 24 - The Rising Tide of Revolt 463
  • 25 - The Attack on the Sacraments 479
  • 26 - The Break with Rome 491
  • 27 - Appeal to the Secular Classes 507
  • 28 - The Final Break with Church Tradition 524
  • 29 - The Bull and the Counterattack 539
  • 30 - Book-Burning on Rhine and Elbe 562
  • 31 - Prelude to the Diet at Worms 587
  • 32 - The Diet in Session 614
  • 33 - Martin before the Diet 649
  • 34 - Refusal to Compromise 670
  • Conclusion 693
  • List of Abbreviations 694
  • Selected Bibliography 695
  • Index 715
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