Principles of Experimental Phonetics

By Norman J. Lass | Go to book overview

Chapter 7
Speech Analysis and
Synthesis
Hector R. Javkin Chapter Outline
Introduction
Speech Analysis
Preliminaries: Sampling
Fourier Analysis
Spectrographic Analysis
Visual Analysis of the Time Waveform of Speech
Time Analysis of the Glottal Waveform
Future Directions in the Analysis of Speech
Speech Synthesis
First Attempts
Methods of Synthesis
Vocal Tract Models
Cascade and Parallel Formant Synthesizers
Sound Source Generation
Concatenation of Speech
Synthesis Based on Linear Predictive Coding
Synthetic Speech in Research
Early Experiments
Current Research
Speech Synthesis by Rule and Text-to‐ Speech
Elements of a Text-to-Speech System
Text-to-Speech for Nonalphabetic Languages
Present-Day Systems
Evaluation of Text-to-Speech
Applications of Synthesis and Future Directions
What Makes Speech Sound Natural? Male and Female Synthesized Speech
Conclusion
Key Terms
aliasing 247
aperiodic 254
bandwidth 259
Bernoulli force 254
cascade 256
clipping 251
coarticulation 259
concatenation 259
consonant transitions 260
continuant 257
critical band 252
declination 264
demisyllables 266

-245-

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