Classical Rhetoric & Its Christian & Secular Tradition from Ancient to Modern Times

By George A. Kennedy | Go to book overview

CHAPTER 2
Technical Rhetoric

The needs of democracy in Greece prompted the composition of the first classical handbooks of public speaking. Democratic government existed in a number of Greek cities but most fully in Athens in the fifth and fourth centuries B.C. A series of political changes took place over a period of more than two hundred years from monarchical to aristocratic and finally to democratic government. Athenian democracy assumed the active participation of adult male citizens in the deliberative assembly and the lawcourts. Any male citizen could speak in the assembly, which resembled a very large town meeting, but there was no requirement that anyone speak there. In the lawcourts, however, men involved in litigation or accused of a crime were normally expected to speak on their own behalf. Women were represented in court by a male relative. If for any reason, such as illness, a man could not speak on his own behalf, a relative or friend could speak for him. It became possible to buy a speech from a logographer, or speechwriter, which the party involved would try to memorize, but there were no lawyers or others with a special knowledge of law and procedure. Furthermore, there was no public prosecutor; criminal prosecutions had to be conducted by the injured party or a relative or some interested person.

The minimum size of an Athenian jury was 201 members, in important cases, 501, and even more in some cases. The procedure in court consisted primarily of a speech by the plaintiff and a reply by the defendant, each in the form of a continuous address to the jury. Sometimes there were two speeches by each. Evidence of witnesses was taken down in writing before the trial and read out in court. The whole procedure

-20-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Classical Rhetoric & Its Christian & Secular Tradition from Ancient to Modern Times
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 345

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.