MARVIN K. OPLER
This discussion of homosexuality pivots upon a combined behavioral and social-science view of man's fate. This combination of sciences, however, provides no ready-made answers about the fate of sexual impulses. The anthropological view does not ignore biological and physiological factors and is particularly receptive to psychological ones. At the same time, however, it insists that social and cultural forces not be neglected and that cross-cultural differences be given recognition in any analysis of human behavior ( Opler, 1959a). This interdisciplinary view is the minimal requirement of an anthropological approach. But how the biological, psychological, social, and cultural factors are presumed to mesh and operate depends on the scientific synthesis. I shall attempt such a synthesis with regard to the problem of homosexuality.
Let me begin with a psychological point of view, the Freudian. In his analysis of the Schreber case (1911), Freud's insights into Schreber's Oedipal struggles led to the formulation that homosexual trends are a defense against immature infantile desires