THOMAS S. SZASZ
Ever since the Freudian revolution, and especially since the Second World War, it has become intellectually fashionable to hold that homosexuality is neither a sin nor a crime but a disease. This claim means either that homosexuality is a condition somewhat similar to ordinary organic maladies, perhaps caused by some genetic error or endocrine imbalance, or that it is an expression of psychosexual immaturity, probably caused by certain kinds of personal and social circumstance in early life.
I believe it is very likely that homosexuality is, indeed, a disease in the second sense and perhaps sometimes even in the stricter sense. Nevertheless, if we believe that, by categorizing homosexuality as a disease, we have succeeded in removing it from the realm of moral judgment, we are in error. I make this claim not only because the concept of disease itself involves a value judgment, distinguishing some states of bodily and mental functioning from others, but also because every society attaches certain additional value judgments of both a legal and a moral sort to particular diseases. In ancient times, for example, epilepsy was