Homosexuals differ from one another, as do all individuals. The phrase "the homosexual" is no more descriptive or identifying than is the term "the heterosexual." Yet, to paraphrase Kluckhohn's statement about man, we might say without overgeneralizing that every homosexual is like every other homosexual, like some other homosexual, and like no other homosexual. Homosexual behavior may be defined as erotic activity between two members of the same sex. This definition is operational, and I do not diagnose patients as homosexual unless they have engaged in overt homosexual behavior. Those who also engage in heterosexual activities are diagnosed as bisexual. An isolated experience may not warrant the diagnosis, but repetitive homosexual behavior in adulthood, whether sporadic or continuous, designates a homosexual.
Since the latter part of the nineteenth century, when Freud, Havelock Ellis, Krafft-Ebing, and others began their explorations of sex and personality, psychiatrists have pondered the determinants of homosexuality. Many explanations have been put for