A Follow-up Study
of Nineteen Cases
HAROLD I. LIEF
It is only within the past two decades that psychiatrists have considered that patients with homosexual problems could be successfully treated by psychotherapy. Although the early concepts of physical bisexuality formulated by Krafft‐ Ebing (1892) were significantly revised by Freud (1962), the latter's thesis of psychological bisexuality and his emphasis on the constitutional basis of homosexual behavior still left little hope for therapeutic remission of homosexual behavior. In 1940, Rado re-examined these theories, and his refutation of many of their basic tenets laid the foundation for an adaptational view of aberrant sexual behavior. Rado argued that, in general, the chief causal factor of aberrant sexual behavior is anxiety, which inhibits the standard pattern of reactivity and brings about a reparative and substitutive pattern of altered reactivity.
Many recent investigators (Ellis, 1956; Poe, 1952; Rubinstein,