Rebellions and Revolutions: China from the 1800s to the 1980s

By Jack Gray | Go to book overview

PREFACE

The historian of modern China is not given much room for manœuvre in his choice of themes. They impose themselves. The first is the causes of the collapse of the Chinese Empire which, founded two centuries before Christ, had survived into the modern age; the failure of what had hitherto been the most promising quarter of mankind -- probably the most productive, possibly the best governed and certainly the most innovative -- sets a fascinating problem.

The second question raised is the prolonged failure of China to respond to the challenge posed by the coming of the West, and the question is sharpened by the unavoidable contrast with the success of Japan which, when subjected by the Western powers to precisely the same regime as they had imposed on China, moved with extraordinary rapidity to modernize and join the ranks of the industrialized powers. Related to this is the question whether the privileges of the foreign powers in China proved to be on balance a hindrance or a help to her transformation; and here the fact that Japan succeeded so well, in spite of the imposition of the same privileges, throws doubt on the idea that foreign privilege was the decisive factor in preventing China's modernization. More important, the records of the Chinese economy in the early twentieth century, gradually made available by modern scholarship, suggest that the assertion that China's efforts failed miserably is not altogether true, and has persisted only as one of the nationalist and communist myths which must be eliminated before any valid assessment of modern China's history can be attempted.

When we move on to the rise and victory of the Chinese Communist Party we face the question whether this was really the result of a broad-based 'peasant revolution', or whether its cause was essentially military, and it was perhaps possible only because the Japanese invasion of China, being directed against the ports and urban centres defended by the Nationalists, left comparatively unscathed the remoter rural areas in which the Communists operated, leaving them free to build up formidable military strength through guerrilla campaigns.

The major theme presented by post-revolutionary China starts from Mao Zedong's rejection of Stalinism in the late 1950s and the gradual hammering out, through much strife and agony, of a Chinese alternative to the Soviet- style command economy, an alternative which has implications far beyond the borders of China in so far as it presents new possibilities not only for Marxist socialism but for the rest of the Third World in its struggle against

-xi-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Rebellions and Revolutions: China from the 1800s to the 1980s
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 456

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.