Balancing Principles for Teaching Elementary Reading

By James V. Hoffman; James F. Baumann et al. | Go to book overview

base can provide data useful to both internal and external audiences. The PALM model yields data that is useful to teachers and students to encourage reflection and goal setting. It also yields data that can be used on a normative basis to compare a student or group of students' academic progress to a referent group. Based on the results of this study, the school district has moved to implement the PALM model as a substitute for standardized testing. Furthermore, the district is now piloting the use of the model throughout the primary grades.

Retrospective interviews with teachers implementing the model suggest several cautions. First, implementation of portfolio system requires considerable staff development and a supportive climate. Second, implementation and maintenance of a portfolio system requires considerable effort beyond that typically associated with traditional forms of assessment. The motivation for the teacher must be more than just to derive a score on a student at the end of the year. The motivation must be tied to better ongoing instructional decision making on the part of the teacher, and enhanced reflection on the part of learners regarding their progress toward their literacy goals.


SUMMARY

These nine principles, derived from research, suggest some important understandings for how reading instruction can make a difference in the development of balanced reading. Furthermore, the principles suggest specific actions, in terms of tools, activity structures, and teaching strategies that can be used to promote growth. And finally, these principles suggest the beginning of a decision-making basis from which teachers can continue to grow and learn independently.

To what degree are these instructional principles already in place in elementary classrooms around the country? To what degree do these principles reflect an idealized world that is outside the realm of possibility for most classroom teachers? These are questions we explore in depth in Part III of this book.


NOTES
1
Price D., & Hoffman J. V. ( 1998/ 1999). Teaching students to decode in first grade: Back to the old phonies, or on to the new? The State of Reading, 5(1), 39-48.
2
Gaskins I. W. ( 1996/ 1997) Procedures for word learning: Making discoveries about words. Reading Teacher, 50(4), 312-327.
3
Cunningham P., & Cunningham J. W. ( 1992). Making words: Enhancing the invented spelling-decoding connection. Reading Teacher, 46(2), 106-115.
4
Allington R. L. ( 1980). Fluency: The neglected reading goal in reading instruction. Reading Teacher, 36, 556-561.
5
Stahl S. A., Heubach K. L., & Crammond B. ( 1997). Fluency-oriented reading instruction (Reading Research Report No. 79). Athens, GA: Universities of Georgia and Maryland, National Reading Research Center.
7
Blum I. H., Koskinen P. S., Tennant N., Parker E. M., Straub, J., & Curry, C. ( 1995). Using audiotaped books to extend classroom literacy instruction into the home of second language learners. Journal of Reading Behaviour, 27(4), 535-563.

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Balancing Principles for Teaching Elementary Reading
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Preface vii
  • Notes x
  • I - Our Professional Stance 1
  • Notes 9
  • II - Our Principles and Our Practices 11
  • Notes 56
  • III - Our Past and Our Present 59
  • Notes 73
  • IV - Our Plans and Our Future 75
  • Notes 100
  • Author Index 103
  • Subject Index 107
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