Our theoretical framework suggests that it will be of great value to carefully examine the texture of the adolescents' world if investigators and practitioners wish to encourage the development of healthy behaviors and the avoidance of risky behaviors in adolescents. There is a clear need to examine how adolescents perceive specific risks and how they perceive actions recommended to risk avoidance, for example, whether the risks and actions are seen as remote or immediate, whether they are supported by concrete evidence (the death of a basketball star) or by abstract verbalizations, and how they fit or conflict with the adolescent's rapidly changing physical and social self. In short, the new models suggest that education can be effective if information is framed and made relevant to the self as the self is manifest, here and now, and as at it will be manifested later on. It remains to be seen, however, whether the combination of the concepts of self- regulation and framing will provide new avenues for resolving the maintenance problem.
This research and manuscript preparation was supported by grant AG0351 of the National Institute on Aging.
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