are genetically at risk for obesity may need to use a combination of exercise and diet to control their weight and to maintain relatively constant surveillance over their dietary practices. Overweight youth with no familial history of obesity might successfully alter their weight via short-term dietary or exercise practices. Many adolescent athletes who are engaged in high-energy sports need not be concerned with caloric consumption during training but need to alter their practices during periods of inactivity due to injury or the end of the season ( BrooksGunn, Burrow, & Warren, 1988; Warren, 1980). In contrast, athletes whose activities use less energy (such as dance) need to depend more on caloric intake to keep their weight at a certain level than do those whose activities burn more calories per hour of exercise ( Brooks-Gunn et al., 1988). Similar examples have been given for sexual behavior ( Brooks-Gunn & Paikoff, in press): Sexual wellbeing could be expressed by sexual abstinence, self-stimulating sexual behavior, or sexual intercourse with the practice of safe sex. Different subgroups of adolescents are likely to engage in different types of sexual behavior. Health promotion requires that these different pathways be identified, and the factors encouraging different types of healthy behavior be studied.
This chapter was presented at a Workshop on "Developmental Aspects of Health Compliance Behavior," sponsored by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and the Bureau of Maternal and Child Health and Resources Development and held in Bethesda, July 1989. Support for the writing of this chapter was provided by the Russell Sage Foundation, when the author was a Visiting Scholar there. The research from which examples in the chapter were drawn was funded by NICHD, the W. T. Grant Foundation, the Ford Foundation, and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. Their generosity and continued support are greatly appreciated. I thank Norman Krasnegor for his thoughtful editorial comments.
Attie I., & Brooks-Gunn J. (in press). "Research strategies for studying the emergence of eating problems and disorders". In J. G. Crowther, S. E. Hobfoll, M. A. P. Stephens, & D. L. Tennenbaum (Eds.), The etiology of bulimia: The individual and familial context. Washington, DC: Hemisphere.