TH E MATTER OF
MASCULINITY, FEMININITY, AND
The interdisciplinary nature of the emerging field of sexology in The years after Kinsey and Masters and Johnson is best exemplified by the research on what might be called gender issues. Gender is an old term that has been widely used in linguistic discourse to designate whether nouns are masculine, feminine, or neuter. It was not normally used either in the language of the social sciences or sexology until John Money adopted the term in 1955 to serve as an umbrella concept to distinguish femininity, or womanliness, and masculinity, or manliness, from biological sex (male or female). In a sense, by using a new term to describe a variety of phenomena, Money opened up a whole new field of research. It was, however, a field ripe for exploration, since it appealed to the increasingly powerful feminist movement, which was concerned with overcoming the biology-is-destiny arguments that had been so long used to keep women in a subordinate status.
A history of any topic poses tremendous challenges both to the reader and to the author as it approaches the contemporary scene, and the history of sex research poses special difficulties. This is because since the 1960s there has been almost a geometric expansion of research into sex (and gender), with the number of articles and books almost doubling every decade. At the same time, I have been deeply involved in some of this research, and I know personally many of the individuals who appear in these last chapters. Inevitably, some individuals who have contributed to the field are not mentioned and not all kinds of research have received equal attention. Such qualifying state