p. 7 A look at the long history of our manipulation of the environment is in Clive Ponting, A Green History of the World: the environment and the collapse of great civilizations (New York: Penguin Books, I99I).
p. 8 The effects of our ancestors on the recent waves of extinction are examined in Paul S. Martin and Richard G. Klein ed., Quaternary Extinctions: a Prehistoric Revolution (Phoenix: University of Arizona Press, I984).
p. 10 Newspaper and magazine accounts, too many to cite here, have chronicled the desperate plight of the Rwandan refugees. The early history of the plague in India is recounted in David Arnold, Colonizing the Body: State Medicine and Epidemic Disease in Nineteenth Century India (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993).
p. 12 This chronology was drawn from local newspaper accounts and interviews with some of the principals involved.
p. 15 The chronicle of how the Four Comers virus was tracked down is in L. E. Chapman and R. F. Khabbaz, 'Etiology and epidemiology of the Four Comers hantavirus outbreak', Infectious Agents and Disease 3 (1994): 234-44.
p. 18 A balanced view of these outbreaks can be found in Stephen S. Morse ed., Emerging Viruses (New York: Oxford University Press, I993).
p. 18 The latest figures on the Russian diphtheria outbreak are in J. Maurice, 'Russian chaos breeds diphtheria outbreak', Science 267 (1995): 1416-17.
p. 19 The doomsday scenario is explored in Richard Preston, The Hot Zone (New York: Random House, 1994) and Laurie Garrett, The Coming Plague (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1994).
p. 21 See Mirko Grmek, History of AIDS: emergence and origin of a modern pandemic. Translated by R. C. Maulitz and J. Duffin (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1990).
p. 24 Murphy's analysis is in Philip M. Murphy, 'Molecular mimicry and the generation of host defense protein diversity', Cell 72 (1993): 823-6.
p. 30 Guerrant's insightful paper is R. L. Guerrant, 'Lessons from diarrheal diseases; demography to molecular pharmacology', Journal of Infectious Diseases 169 (1994): 1206-18.
p. 33 The appalling infant mortality in the Peruvian highlands is documented in K de Meer, R. Bergman, and J. S. Kusner,