The Gnat Is Older Than Man: Global Environment and Human Agenda

By Christopher D. Stone | Go to book overview

Notes

PREFACE
1
The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) found that the captain's “judgment was impaired by alcohol during the critical period” of navigating the sound. He was not, however, convicted of piloting a vessel while intoxicated: the jurors rejected the state's claim because no blood alcohol test was given until eleven and a half hours after the accident. His only criminal responsibility was for misdemeanor pollution. See John H. Cushman, Jr., “Blame Is Placed for Valdez Spill,” New York Times, August 1, 1990, A10. This charge was overturned by an appeals court on the grounds that he was immunized from prosecution under a special statute benefiting those who, like the captain of the Valdez, voluntarily reported spills to the Coast Guard. “Exxon Valdez Captain's Conviction is Overturned,” Los Angeles Times, July 11, 1992, A18.
2
There was no shortage of potential culprits. The NTSB put part of the blame on the Coast Guard for having failed to monitor vigilantly and for having had inadequate ship traffic control and radar systems. John H. Cushman, Jr., “A Hard Look at Waterborne Traffic Control,” New York Times, August 5, 1990, sec. 4, p. 4. Exxon paid a huge amount—perhaps $4.5 billion in fines, cleanup costs, criminal restitution, and damage settlements—but not until after it had filed a claim against the Coast Guard maintaining that the Coast Guard's negligent licensing of the pilot, its failure to warn the Valdez of imminent collision, its failure to monitor the ship, and its failure to advise mariners of radar limitations all contributed to the accident. “Coast Guard Negligent in Licensing Exxon Valdez Captain, Exxon Contends,” Platt's Oilgram News 68 (October 4, 1990): 4.
3
See “A Lesson Learned, Again, at Valdez,” Science 252 (1991): 371.
4
Ramanlal Soni, Control of Marine Pollution in International Law (Cape Town: Juta, 1985), x.
5
Edvard Hambro, “Some Legal Problems Concerning the Protection of the Human Environment,” Israel Law Review 12 (1977): 1.
6
See Jared M. Diamond, “The Environmentalist Myth,” Nature 324: 19–20, and chapter 10, infra.
7
For 1993 the Bush administration has proposed $1.3 billion for the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), which is already far and away the world's largest program on global-change research. An additional

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