Children with Special Needs
Children with special needs vary widely by disability and circumstance. They include children injured prenatally, genetically disabled, or subject to post birth injury or illness. Children with physical handicaps, and those with a mental illness, learning disability, or severe emotional problems also have special needs. On a national basis, about one in every eight children aged 6–14 has some type of disability; 6.8% of children in that agerange have difficulty doing regular school work, 5.2% have a learning disability; 1.5% have a developmental disability (including mental retardation, autism, or cerebral palsy), and 3.7% have some other developmental condition for which they have received therapy or diagnostic services. 1 States provide services directly, and through federallyfunded pro grams—administered through the Social Security Administration (SSA), the Department of Education, or the Department of Health and Human Services.
Although the Census Bureau places the Severe Emotional Disability (SED) rate at a conservative 4.8% of all school age children, 2 a broader definition of mental health disorder yields estimates in the 12–20% range. Related to mental stability, persons under the age of 25 accounted for 15% of all suicides in the late 1990s. 3 A 1993 study by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) of 16,000 high school students found that one in twelve had attempted suicide in the previous year. 4 Youth deaths by suicide are relatively high compared to incidence in other nations, and, as discussed in Chapter 5, constitute the third leading cause of death for children from 15–19 years of age. 5
Longstanding research has established a strong connection between nutrition and optimum brain development. One leading source has concluded that even moderate but chronic undernutrition correlates with lower scores in cognitive function tests, and found “substantial relations between nutrition and mental development.” 6 A decades long longitudinal study of diet and mental development from 1968 into the 1990s has found that nutrition is highly corre lated with cognitive competence, especially between ages 3 and 7, including language test performance results. 7
Some harm is permanent—particularly where malnutrition occurs during the first five years of brain development. Recent research shows that even low levels of malnutrition for various nutrients harm children in a variety of ways; some—but not all—are irreversible. These developmental, growth, health, and