Defining Public Administration: Selections from the International Encyclopedia of Public Policy and Administration

By Jay M. Shafritz | Go to book overview

20
SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT

Judith A. Merkle

Claremont-McKenna College

The name given to the Taylor System and related systems of shop management during hearings of the Interstate Commerce Commission on railroad rates in 1910. Other terms covering the same methods of quantified work study and management are "efficiency engineering," "industrial engineering," and, in the European context, "rationalization." All of these terms grew out of applications of the original Taylor System in ever wider contexts and include time and motion studies, the microdivision of labor, forward planning, and a system of strict labor discipline, usually backed by some variant on the piecework wage (see Taylor, Frederick W.).

The Taylor System itself, however, was not a single method of increasing productivity but was a collection of techniques that tended to be adapted and to evolve over time and depending upon circumstance. And it was not all the work of one man, Frederick Winslow Taylor, although his work was central to the scientific management movement. Associates such as Henry Laurence Gantt, Morris L. Cooke, Carl Barth, and Frank and Lillian Gilbreth, among others, made important contributions to Taylorism. What these techniques had in common was a strong bias toward the rational-utilitarian, the quantified, and the mechanistic. They tended to downplay the element of human nature and sought to control the results of the interaction of human beings as precisely as the output of a machine could be controlled. In the first half of the twentieth century, nearly all the formal management that was taught was Scientific Management: the increase of productivity through rational mea

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Defining Public Administration: Selections from the International Encyclopedia of Public Policy and Administration
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Editorial Board *
  • Title Page *
  • Contents *
  • Preface vii
  • Part One - Overviews of Public Administration *
  • 1 - Public Administration 3
  • 2 - American Administrative Tradition 17
  • 3 - Feminist Theory of Public Administration 30
  • Part Two - Policy Making *
  • 4 - Policy 39
  • 5 - Policy Leadership 43
  • 6 - Policy N Etwork 65
  • 7 - Rule 73
  • Part Three - Intergovernmental Relations *
  • 8 - Intergovernmental Relations 83
  • 9 - Mandates 102
  • 10 - Government Corporation 110
  • Part Four - Bureaucracy *
  • 11 - Bureaucracy *
  • 12 - Bureaucrat Bashing 128
  • 13 - Bureaupathology 132
  • Part Five - Organization Behavior *
  • 14 - Organizational Culture 137
  • 15 - Groupthink 147
  • 16 - Mies's Law 151
  • 17 - Parkinson's Law 154
  • 18 - Peter Principle 156
  • Part Six - Public Management *
  • 19 - Public Management 161
  • 20 - Scientific Management 169
  • 21 - Management Science 180
  • 22 - Entrepreneurial Public Administration 184
  • Part Seven - Strategic Management *
  • 23 - Leadership 191
  • 24 - Strategic Planning 208
  • 25 - Mission Statement 230
  • Part Eight - Performance Management *
  • 26 - Productivity 237
  • 27 - Reengineering 249
  • 28 - Quality Circles 271
  • 29 - Public Enterprise 279
  • Part Nine - Human Resources Management *
  • 30 - Public Personnel Administration 295
  • 31 - Mentoring 307
  • 32 - Pay-For-Performance 315
  • 33 - Workforce Diversity 322
  • 34 - Glass Ceiling 339
  • Part Ten - Financial Management *
  • 35 - Financial Administration 345
  • 36 - Congressional Budget Process 355
  • 37 - Target-Based Budgeting 367
  • Part Eleven - Auditing and Accountability *
  • 38 - Audit 375
  • 39 - Accountability 382
  • 40 - Stewardship 396
  • Part Twelve - Ethics *
  • 41 - Administrative Morality 407
  • 42 - Standards of Conduct 416
  • 43 - Regime Values 420
  • 44 - Lying with Statistics 422
  • 45 - Whistleblower 428
  • Appendix - A Complete List of the Articles in the International Encyclopedia of Public Policy and Administration 437
  • Index 447
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