Defining Public Administration: Selections from the International Encyclopedia of Public Policy and Administration

By Jay M. Shafritz | Go to book overview

23
LEADERSHIP

Frederick W. Gibson

Fred E. Fiedler

Oppenheimer Funds

University of Washington

The actions of a person who, whether elected, appointed, or emerging by group consensus, directs, coordinates, and supervises the work of others for the purpose of accomplishing a given task. This excludes, for example, fashion or opinion leaders, and leaders of groups designed to enhance the growth or adjustment of their members, or to provide for the members' enjoyment. It has been said that there are as many definitions of leadership as people who write about it. Although this may be poetic license, there is no doubt that the number of definitions is considerable.

Leadership has fascinated humanity for at least as long as the existence of written records. Plato's Republic (about 500 B.C.E.) is an early example, but there are even earlier references to leadership in ancient Egyptian documents. The popular concern with leadership is perhaps best seen by the more than 7,500 empirical leadership studies that have been reported in the literature (Bass 1990). The reasons for the popularity of this topic are not difficult to find. Leadership is an ever-present social phenomenon in all cultures. Furthermore, the quality of leadership frequently determines the fate of a group or an organization. In addition, a leader is almost always required whenever a job cannot be done by one person alone. Leadership has been a peculiarly American concern, in large part

-191-

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Defining Public Administration: Selections from the International Encyclopedia of Public Policy and Administration
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Editorial Board *
  • Title Page *
  • Contents *
  • Preface vii
  • Part One - Overviews of Public Administration *
  • 1 - Public Administration 3
  • 2 - American Administrative Tradition 17
  • 3 - Feminist Theory of Public Administration 30
  • Part Two - Policy Making *
  • 4 - Policy 39
  • 5 - Policy Leadership 43
  • 6 - Policy N Etwork 65
  • 7 - Rule 73
  • Part Three - Intergovernmental Relations *
  • 8 - Intergovernmental Relations 83
  • 9 - Mandates 102
  • 10 - Government Corporation 110
  • Part Four - Bureaucracy *
  • 11 - Bureaucracy *
  • 12 - Bureaucrat Bashing 128
  • 13 - Bureaupathology 132
  • Part Five - Organization Behavior *
  • 14 - Organizational Culture 137
  • 15 - Groupthink 147
  • 16 - Mies's Law 151
  • 17 - Parkinson's Law 154
  • 18 - Peter Principle 156
  • Part Six - Public Management *
  • 19 - Public Management 161
  • 20 - Scientific Management 169
  • 21 - Management Science 180
  • 22 - Entrepreneurial Public Administration 184
  • Part Seven - Strategic Management *
  • 23 - Leadership 191
  • 24 - Strategic Planning 208
  • 25 - Mission Statement 230
  • Part Eight - Performance Management *
  • 26 - Productivity 237
  • 27 - Reengineering 249
  • 28 - Quality Circles 271
  • 29 - Public Enterprise 279
  • Part Nine - Human Resources Management *
  • 30 - Public Personnel Administration 295
  • 31 - Mentoring 307
  • 32 - Pay-For-Performance 315
  • 33 - Workforce Diversity 322
  • 34 - Glass Ceiling 339
  • Part Ten - Financial Management *
  • 35 - Financial Administration 345
  • 36 - Congressional Budget Process 355
  • 37 - Target-Based Budgeting 367
  • Part Eleven - Auditing and Accountability *
  • 38 - Audit 375
  • 39 - Accountability 382
  • 40 - Stewardship 396
  • Part Twelve - Ethics *
  • 41 - Administrative Morality 407
  • 42 - Standards of Conduct 416
  • 43 - Regime Values 420
  • 44 - Lying with Statistics 422
  • 45 - Whistleblower 428
  • Appendix - A Complete List of the Articles in the International Encyclopedia of Public Policy and Administration 437
  • Index 447
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