Defining Public Administration: Selections from the International Encyclopedia of Public Policy and Administration

By Jay M. Shafritz | Go to book overview

34
GLASS CEILING

Katherine C. Naff

San Francisco State University

A term used to describe subtle (almost invisible) barriers that women and minorities face as they try to move up the career ladder in organizations. The term was popularized in the 1980s and applied to women. Later, it was acknowledged that minorities also may face elusive barriers in advancement as well. Often it is said that a glass ceiling exists when women and minorities can see the top of a career ladder, but bump their heads against an invisible obstacle when they try to climb it.

Overt discrimination in employment against women and minorities has been unlawful in the United States since the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, and in the past three decades women and minorities have made significant strides in gaining employment in both the private and public sectors (see discrimination, gender and discrimination, racial). However, these gains have largely been in entry-level positions and nonminority men continue to hold the vast majority of top level jobs. For example, in its report on the Glass Ceiling Initiative released in 1991, the Department of Labor (DOL) noted that in 94 Fortune 1,000-sized companies it reviewed, women held 37 percent and minorities held nearly 16 percent of jobs. However, in these same companies, less than 7 percent of executives were women and less than 3 percent were minorities. In the federal civil service, 47 percent of jobs are held by woman and 27 percent by minorities. But less than 12 percent of senior executives are women and less than 8 percent are minorities. Similar patterns can be found in most state and local governments, where nonminority men are nearly two-thirds of "officials and administrators."

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Defining Public Administration: Selections from the International Encyclopedia of Public Policy and Administration
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Editorial Board *
  • Title Page *
  • Contents *
  • Preface vii
  • Part One - Overviews of Public Administration *
  • 1 - Public Administration 3
  • 2 - American Administrative Tradition 17
  • 3 - Feminist Theory of Public Administration 30
  • Part Two - Policy Making *
  • 4 - Policy 39
  • 5 - Policy Leadership 43
  • 6 - Policy N Etwork 65
  • 7 - Rule 73
  • Part Three - Intergovernmental Relations *
  • 8 - Intergovernmental Relations 83
  • 9 - Mandates 102
  • 10 - Government Corporation 110
  • Part Four - Bureaucracy *
  • 11 - Bureaucracy *
  • 12 - Bureaucrat Bashing 128
  • 13 - Bureaupathology 132
  • Part Five - Organization Behavior *
  • 14 - Organizational Culture 137
  • 15 - Groupthink 147
  • 16 - Mies's Law 151
  • 17 - Parkinson's Law 154
  • 18 - Peter Principle 156
  • Part Six - Public Management *
  • 19 - Public Management 161
  • 20 - Scientific Management 169
  • 21 - Management Science 180
  • 22 - Entrepreneurial Public Administration 184
  • Part Seven - Strategic Management *
  • 23 - Leadership 191
  • 24 - Strategic Planning 208
  • 25 - Mission Statement 230
  • Part Eight - Performance Management *
  • 26 - Productivity 237
  • 27 - Reengineering 249
  • 28 - Quality Circles 271
  • 29 - Public Enterprise 279
  • Part Nine - Human Resources Management *
  • 30 - Public Personnel Administration 295
  • 31 - Mentoring 307
  • 32 - Pay-For-Performance 315
  • 33 - Workforce Diversity 322
  • 34 - Glass Ceiling 339
  • Part Ten - Financial Management *
  • 35 - Financial Administration 345
  • 36 - Congressional Budget Process 355
  • 37 - Target-Based Budgeting 367
  • Part Eleven - Auditing and Accountability *
  • 38 - Audit 375
  • 39 - Accountability 382
  • 40 - Stewardship 396
  • Part Twelve - Ethics *
  • 41 - Administrative Morality 407
  • 42 - Standards of Conduct 416
  • 43 - Regime Values 420
  • 44 - Lying with Statistics 422
  • 45 - Whistleblower 428
  • Appendix - A Complete List of the Articles in the International Encyclopedia of Public Policy and Administration 437
  • Index 447
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