I am deeply grateful to those participants in the history of AI who lent me their time and help in preparing this account of their activities. Particular thanks must go to Marvin Minsky, Herbert Simon, Allen Newell, Gerald Sussman, Daniel Dennett, Joseph Weizenbaum, Berthold Horn, Randall Davis, Carl Hewitt, John McClelland, Hans Moravec, Raj Reddy, David Waltz, Patrick Winston, Guy Lapalme, and Marion Finley, who granted me interviews. Several of them, as well as Roger Schank, also read and commented on relevant sections of the manuscript.
Many thanks also to those friends and relatives who reviewed the manuscript and supplied their comments: Simon Paré, Jacques Martineau, Francis Dupuis, Marie-Josée Rousseau, Laurens R. Schwartz, Claire Dowey, and, of course, Paul-Henri Crevier, my father, who helped out on the neurology and philosophy.
Basic Books's Susan Rabiner must be acknowledged for her prodding help throughout; and Phoebe Hoss, for her enlightened revision of the manuscript.
Many thanks also to those publishers and authors who granted me permission to quote from their copyrighted material: Academic Press, the American Council on Education, and Patrick Winston.
I could not have completed the project without the understanding