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PERSONALITY CORRELATES

Even if individuals show less cross-situational consistency in their behavior than has been assumed, numerous relationships do exist of course among a person's response patterns. Correlations frequently occur between a person's behaviors evoked under many different conditions, and therefore responses in any one situation can serve as signs of other things that the individual is likely to do in new circumstances. Personality psychology has studied these relationships extensively since the earliest work on individual differences began at the turn of the century.

Research of this kind seeks correlations among an individual's patterns of responses to different standardized eliciting conditions or tests. In this correlational strategy, test batteries are administered and the empirical associations between responses to these tests or stimulus conditions provide indices of how strongly an individual's behavior converges across situations. More recently, increasing attention is being given to the relations between individual differences (e.g., on a paperand-pencil test) and responses to experimentally manipulated treatments. A typical question here might be how do people who have high scores on an anxiety scale differ in their reactions to failure from those who have low anxiety scores. Studies that explore relations among responses, either on formal tests or on laboratory measures, try to discover how an individual's behaviors in one situation serve as a sign of his behavior in other situations and attempt to illuminate the organization of behavior.

As long as statements are limited to operational descriptions of obtained responses and their empirical interrelations, there are no interpretative problems. Most personality psychologists, however, have not

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Personality and Assessment
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Preface vii
  • Contents ix
  • Introduction to the Republished Edition xiii
  • 1 - Introduction 1
  • 2 - Consistency and Specificity in Behavior 13
  • 3 - Traits and States As Constructs 41
  • 4 - Personality Correlates 73
  • 5 - Utility 103
  • 6 - Principles of Social Behavior 149
  • 7 - Behavior Change 193
  • 8 - Assessment for Behavior Change 235
  • 9 - Personality and Prediction 281
  • References 303
  • Author Index 339
  • Subject Index 347
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