J. M. Roberts and G. Almond, "The Political Process
in Primitive Societies," mimeographed (Stanford, California).
See, in greater detail, Eisenstadt, The Political System
Talcott Parsons, "Evolutionary Universals in Society," American Sociological Review, XXIX, No. 3 (June 1964),
339-357; Robert N. Bellah, "Religious Evolution," ibid., pp.
358-374; S. N. Eisenstadt, "Social Change, Differentiation
and Evolution," ibid., pp. 375-385. See also Talcott Parsons, Societies in Comparative and Evolutionary Perspectives
(Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, 1966).
Ali A. Mazrui, "Edmund Burke and Reflections on the
Revolution in the Congo," in S. Thrupp, ed., Comparative
Studies in Society and History, V (1962-1963), 121-133.
Carl G. Rosberg and William H. Friedland, eds., African Socialism (Stanford: Stanford University Press,
See Bendix, op. cit., as well as some of the recent
discussions of the social aspects of Marx's work, such as
those of George Lichtheim, Marx and the Asiatic Mode of
Production, St. Anthony's Papers No. 14 (1963); Daniel
Thorner, "Marx on India and the Asiatic Mode of Production," Contributions to Indian Sociology, No. 9 (December
1966), pp. 3-66, which contains a full bibliography of this
controversy; F. Tokei, Sur le Mode de Production Asiatique,
Studia Historica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae (Budapest ; Akadémiai Kiadó, 1966).
See Talcott Parsons, "On the Concept of Political
Power," Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society
(1963), pp. 236-258.
Talcott Parsons, "Culture and the Social System:
Introduction," in Parsons et al., Theories of Society, II (New
York: The Free Press, 1965), 963-993; S. N. Eisenstadt,
"Development of Sociological Thought," International Encyclopaedia of the Social Sciences, XV, 23-36.
From Edward A. Shils, "Charisma, Order and Status," American Sociological Review, XXX (April 1965), 199-213.
Edward Shils, "Centre and Periphery," in The Logic of
Personal Knowledge, essays presented to Michael Polanyi
(London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1961), pp. 117-131.
See on this, in greater detail, S. N. Eisenstadt, ed., "On
Charisma and Institution-building," introduction to the
Heritage of Sociology Series (Chicago: University of Chicago
Émile Durkheim, On the Division of Labour in Society
(Glencoe: The Free Press, 1947), pp. 174-190.
For one of the few important exceptions, see Talcott
Parsons, "Some Reflections on the Place of Force in Social
Process," in his Sociological Theory and Modern Society (New
York: The Free Press, 1967) pp. 266-297.
TO THE READINGS
The following selections have been chosen to represent the development of political sociology. The
selections range from classical forerunners through
the first modern examples and up to the most recent
In common use they define a citizen to be one who
is sprung from citizens on both sides, not on the
father's or the mother's only. Others carry the matter still further, and inquire how many of his ancestors have been citizens, as his grandfather, great‐
grandfather, etc., but some persons have questioned
how the first of the family could prove themselves
citizens, according to this popular and careless definition. Gorgias of Leontium, partly entertaining the
same doubt, and partly in jest, says, that as a mortar
is made by a mortar-maker, so a citizen is made by
a citizen-maker, and a Larissæan by a Larissæan‐
maker. This is indeed a very simple account of the
matter; for if citizens are so, according to this
definition, it will be impossible to apply it to the first
founders or first inhabitants of states, who cannot
possibly claim in right either of their father or
mother. It is probably a matter of still more difficulty
to determine their rights as citizens who are admitted to their freedom after any revolution in the
state. As, for instance, at Athens, after the expulsion
of the tyrants, when Clisthenes enrolled many foreigners and city-slaves amongst the tribes; and the