parallelism between the historical and contemporary
primitive societies, there can be little doubt that the
most contemporary societies, as depicted by anthropologists, do constitute an interesting model or a
limiting case for the study of political sociology.
Franz Oppenheimer, The State, Its History and Development (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1914); R. H. Lowie, Primitive Society (New York: Boni and Liveright, 1920);
Lawrence Krader, The Origins of the State, Foundation
Series of Anthropology (Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall,
Marshall D. Sahlins, "Culture and Environment: The
Study of Cultural Ecology,"' in Sol Tax, ed., Horizons of
Anthropology (Chicago: Aldine, 1964), pp. 132-147; Stanley
Diamond, "The Search for the Primitive," in I. Galdston, ed., Man's Image in Medicine and Anthropology (International
University Press, 1963), pp. 62-115; Krader, op. cit.
W. E. H. Stanner, "On Aboriginal Religion, I," Oceania,
XXX (December 1959); Stanner, "On Aboriginal Religion
II," ibid. (June 1960); Stanner, "The Dreaming," in T. A. G.
Hungerford, ed., Australian Signpost (Melbourne: Cheshire,
1956), reprinted in William Lessa and Evan Z. Vogt, eds., Reader in Comparative Religion (Evanston: Row, Peterson,
On this in greater detail, see S. N. Eisenstadt, "Anthropological Studies of Complex Societies," in Eisenstadt,
Essays in Comparative Institutions (New York: Wiley, 1965),
See A. L. Epstein, Politics in an Urban African Community (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1958),
See Émile Durkheim, On the Division of Labour in
Society (Glencoe: The Free Press, 1947).
Max Gluckman, "The Kingdom of the Zulu of South
Africa," in M. Fortes and E. E. Evans-Pritchard, eds., African
Political Systems (London: Oxford University Press, 1940).
Audrey I. Richards, "The Political System of the Bemba
of Northern Rhodesia," in Fortes and Evans-Pritchard, op.
E. E. Evans-Pritchard, The Divine Kingship of the
Shilluk of the Nilotic Sudan (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1948).
E. E. Evans-Pritchard, The Political System of the
Annuak of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan (London: London
School of Economics, 1940).
Daryll Forde, "Ward Organization among the Yako," Africa, XX (1950), 267-289.
For a very representative collection of articles on
primitive political systems, see Ronald Cohen and John
Middleton, eds., Comparative Political Systems—Studies in
the Politics of Pre-industrial Societies (New York: Natural
History Press, 1957).
Melville J. Herskovits, Dahomey: An Ancient West African Kingdom (Illnois: Northwestern University Press, 1967).
Evans-Pritchard, The Political System of the Annuak
of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan.
Marshall D. Sahlins, Social Stratification in Polynesia
(Seattle: American Ethnological Society, 1958); Sahlins,
"Poor-Man, Rich-Man, Big-Man, Chief," Comparative Studies
in Society and History, V (1963), 285-303.
E. Adamson Hoebel, "Associations and the State in
the Plains," American Anthropologist, XXXVIII (1936), 433‐
Karl Polanyi, Conrad M. Arensberg, and Harry W.
Pearson, Trade and Market in Early Empires (Glencoe: The
Free Press, 1957).
Max Gluckman, Politics, Law and Religion in Tribal
Society (Chicago: Aldine, 1965); Gluckman, The Ideas of
Barotse Jurisprudence (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1965).
Frederick Barth, Political Leadership among Swat
Pathana (London: University of London Press, 1959).
See S. N. Eisenstadt, "Primitive Political Systems: A
Preliminary Comparative Analysis," American Anthropologist, LXI, No. 2 (April 1959), 205-220.
Audrey I. Richards, "The Political System of the
Bemba Tribe of Northern Rhodesia," in Fortes and Evans‐
Pritchard, op. cit.
Meyer Fortes, "The Political System of the Tallensi
of the Northern Territories of the Gold Coast," in Fortes
and Evans-Pritchard, op. cit.
See, for instance, Evans-Pritchard, The Political System of the Annuak of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan.
Gluckman, "The Kingdom of the Zulu of South
Max Gluckman, Custom and Conflict in Africa (Oxford: Blackwell, 1955).
Sahlins, "Poor-Man, Rich-Man, Big-Man, Chief";
Sahlins, Social Stratification in Polynesia (Seattle: University
Press, 1958); Irving Goldman, "The Evolution of Polynesian
Societies," in Stanley Diamond, ed., Culture in History (New
York: Columbia University Press, 1960), pp. 687-712; Goldman, "Status Rivalry and Cultural Evolution in Polynesia," American Anthropologist, LVII (1955), 680-697.
James A. Barnes, Politics in a Changing Society (Cape
Town: Oxford University Press, 1954). See also, for more
recent approaches, Victor Turner and Marc Swatz, eds., Political Anthropology (Chicago: Aldine, 1966).
In the following section several selections dealing
with primitive political systems are presented. Most
of the essays attempt some type of comparative
analysis. Lloyd Fallers' article compares different
African political systems and attempts to suggest the
different potentials for political modernization inherent in them. Fallers tends to emphasize the importance
of center formation in the primitive society as a facilitating factor in the process of modernization. Morton
H. Fried's contribution represents the evolutionary approach to the analysis of primitive political systems,
with special emphasis on the ways in which the development of stratification determines the crystallization of differentiated political organizations. Max
Gluckman indicates how partial differentiation of the