Moreover, in such cases the city-states could provide very important ingredients or bases for the constitution of new, more differentiated political regimes,
whether feudal or imperial. In them the specific
symbolism of the city-states not only was a sort of
appendage to that of the patrimonial or tribal ruler
but could also constitute the basis of new, wider
political orientation and symbolism.
For Greece, see Victor Ehrenberg, The Greek City‐
State (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1960); M. I. Finley, The
Ancient Greeks (New York: Viking, 1963); A. Gouldner, Enter Plato (New York: Basic Books, 1965). For Rome, see
A. R. E. Boak, History of Rome to 565 A.D. (New York:
Macmillan, 1955); L. Homo, Roman Political Institutions
(London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1962); R. Syme, The Roman Revolution (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1939).
For Sumer, see Anton Deimel, "Sumerische Tempelwirtschaft
zur Zeit Urukaginas und Seiner Vorgänger," Analecta Orientalia, No. 2 (Rome: Pontifical Biblical Institute, 1931);
Samuel N. Kramer, The Sumerians: Their History, Culture
and Character (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1963);
Anna Schneide, Die sumerische Tempelstadt (Essen: G. D.
Bädiker, 1920). For Babylonia, see C. J. Gadd, "The Cities
of Babylonia," The Cambridge Ancient History, 2nd ed.,
Vol. I (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1962),
Ch. 13; Stephen H. Langdon, "Early Babylonia and Its
Cities," ibid. (1928), I, 356-402. For Assyria, see Robert
M. Adams, The Evolution of Urban Society (Chicago:
Aldine, 1966); J. J. Finkelstein, "Mesopotamian Historiography," Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society,
CVII, 461-472, 1963.
Robert J. Braidwood and Gorden R. Willey, eds., Courses Towards Urban Life: Archeological Considerations
of Some Cultural Alternates, Viking Fund Publications in
Anthropology (New York, 1962), No. 32; Dietz O. Edzard, Die Fruhdynastiche Zeit. In die altorientalischen Reiche, I:
Fischer Weltgeschichte, Bd. 2, ed. Elena Cassin, Jean Bottéro
and Jean Vercoutter (Frankfurt am Main: Fischer Bucherei,
1965); Adam Falkenstein, "La cité-temple sumérienne,"
Cahiers d'Historie Mondiale (1954) I, 784-814.
For India and Southeast Asia, see Milton Singer, ed., Traditional India: Structure and Change (Philadelphia:
American Folklore Society, 1959); Michael D. Coe, "Social
Typology and the Tropical Forest Civilizations," Comparative
Studies in Society and History, II (1955), 67-92; Hugh Tinker, The City in the Asian Polity (London: School of Oriental
and African Studies, 1966); Lawrence P. Briggs, "The Ancient
Khmer Empire," Proceedings of the American Philosophical
Society, Vol. XLI, Part I (Philadelphia: 1951).
For Mexico, see Adams, op. cit.; Angel Palerm and
Eric R. Wolf, "Ecological Potential and Culture Development in Mesoamerica," Studies in Human Ecology (Washington, D.C.: Panamerican Union, Social Science Monographs,
No. 3, 1957); Sylvanus G. Morley, The Aocient Maya, 3rd ed.,
rev. by George W. Brainard (Stanford: Stanford University
Press, 1956). For Peru, see John V. Murra, "On Inca Political
Structure," Proceedings of American Ethnological Society
(1958), pp. 30-41.
See the classical exposition of Henri Pirenne, Early
Democracies in the Low Countries, trans. J. V. Saunders
(New York: Harper and Row, 1963), and the bibliography.
Mikhail Rostovtsev, Caravan Cities, trans. D. and T.
Talbot Rice (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1932).
For greater detail on this, see A. Bozeman, Politics and
Culture in International History (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1960), Chs. 2 and 3.
Finley, op. cit., p. 37.
A. W. Gomme, "The Working of the Athenian Democracy," History, XXXVI (1951), 12-28; A. H. M. Jones, "The
Social Structure of Athens in the Fourth Century B.C.," Economic History Review, Second Series, VIII, No. 2 (1955),
Charles C. Picard, La Vie Quotidienne à Carthage au
Temps d'Hannibal (Paris: Hachette, 1958).
Max Weber, "Citizenship," in General Economic History, trans. Frank H. Knight (New York: Collier, 1961),
J. B. Bary, A History of Greece to the Death of
Alexander the Great, 2nd ed. (London: Macmillan, 1924),
Chs. II-III; Bozeman, op. cit.
The material on the city-states is divided into two
sections. In the first we present three excerpts from
the works of some of the classical historians and
philosophers that (as does also the excerpt from
Aristotle in the first section) represent some of their
reflections on the nature of political order in general
and that of the city-state in particular.