retaining them beyond the pale! All, Conscript
Fathers, that is now believed supremely old has
been new: plebeian magistrates followed the patrician ; Latin, the plebeian; magistrates from the other
races of Italy, the Latin. Our innovation, too, will
be parcel of the past, and what to-day we defend
by precedents will rank among precedents."
"Long-haired Gaul" (the three imperial provinces of
Aquitania, Lugdunensis, and Belgica), as opposed to
"trousered Gaul" (the senatorial and completely romanized
Their clans were foederati; they themselves, full Roman
citizens, but without senatorial rank, and therefore ineligible
for the official career.
The Latin and Italian communities.
Types of the Gallic population north of the Po,
enfranchised by Caesar at the outbreak of the Civil War
The scene of the siege, in 52 B.C., of Vercingetorix
by Caesar and of Caesar by the relieving Gaulish army
(Caes. B.G. VII. 68 etc.); now Alise-Sainte-Reine, a village
of some 600 inhabitants, between Semur and Dijon.
The text is desperate, but refers to the capture of
Rome and siege of the Capitol by the Senonian Gauls after
Allia (390 B.C.).
Large fragments of the actual speech, here re-written,
rearranged, and condensed by Tacitus, were discovered at
Lyons in 1524, and printed by Lipsius in an excursus to
his famous edition fifty years later. They may be conveniently
consulted in Orelli, Nipperdey, or Furneaux.
In Latium, like Alba and Tusculum; but the site is
In virtue of the extension of the franchise to all Italy
south of the Po, at the end of the Social War.
The reference is to Caesar's grant of the civitas to
the Gallic communities north of the Po, in 49 B.C., a date
which makes the following tunc solia domi quies curious.
Southern and eastern neighbors respectively of ancient
Rome; associated with the legends of Coriolanus and Cincinnatus.
After the surrender of Rome to Porsenna.
At the Caudine Forks in 321 B.C.
In ten years (59-50 B.C.). There were many shorter
conquests; and, in his actual speech, Claudius emphasizes
the obstinacy of their resistance.
∥ b. MAJOR TYPES OF CITY-STATES AND THE CONDITIONS OF
THEIR DEVELOPMENT AND CHANGE
The Genesis of the Greek Polis
For the scholar of ancient history, the "polis" is
the most important and most worthy subject of
study. By "polis" we mean that well-known type of
Greek city which with its territory constituted an
autonomous state and, in this respect, was quite
similar to the centres of the Italian Renaissance.
Ancient Hellas was made up of a great number of
such "polis" cities. Each of them had its own freedom, its individual pride as an independent republic.
But in the over-all picture we recognise in the institution of the polis the ground that nourished the
dynamic and in a sense revolutionary spirit of the
ancient Greeks. Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides,
Cleisthenes and Themistocles, Pericles and Alcibiades,
Protagoras and Democritus, Plato and Aristotle were
the sons of polis cities. We may even assert that these
men could be what they were only in the emancipated and inspired atmosphere of the polis. No other
ancient culture could have given them birth. If we
consider the Greek polis from the point of view of
universal history we come to a rather astonishing
conclusion: the polis differs from all other comparable cultural institutions in Asia, Egypt, and
Europe by a very fundamental and special trait:
Europe knew only a primitive, barbarian, rustic way
of life. People were either roving nomads or tillers
of the soil who lived in simple villages. The Celtic