Archaeologischer Anzeiger, 1932, pp. 166 et seq.; ibid., 1933,
pp. 245 et seq.; ibid., 1934, pp. 181 et seq.; 1935, pp. 234 et seq.; ibid., 1936, pp. 154 et seq.; ibid., 1937 pp. 167 et seq.
A more detailed account will be found in my treatment in "Praehistorische Kulturen" and in my forthcoming
In my opinion these names of places reached Greece
from Cilicia and the Mesopotamian and Anatolian border
region, partly along with the oldest cultural exchange,
partly with the expansion during the Early Bronze period.
More will be said on this point in my "Praehistorische
Bossert, Altkreta, 3rd ed.; but it remains quite uncertain whether the fragments collected at this place actually
belong together at all.
Evans, The Palace of Minos, III, plate 18.
Evans, op. cit., II, pp. 563 et seq.
Boull, Correspondence Hellenique; cf. also Bossert, op. cit.
Cf. to this point my treatment in Klio, XXXII, 1939,
pp. 261 et seq.; more detail in my forthcoming article
The German, Austrian, and Swiss scholars use the
expression "Indo-Germanic" with the same meaning, but for
objective reasons the expression "Indo-European" is to be
On my stay in the Orient from 1917 to 1919 I had an
opportunity to observe directly how the principle of personal
(tribal) association works among the Mesopotamian
In my opinion the house Nr. D of Asine has rightly
been claimed as the residence of a lord (cf. Froedin-Persson, Asine, 1938, Figs. 42, 49, 47); the same is true for the
central establishment of Malthi (Valmin, Swedish Messenia
Expedition, 1938, pp. 77 et seq., figs. 19 et seq.).
Cf. especially my treatment in Hethiter und Achaeer,
1935, pp. 158 et seq.
Nilsson, Geschichte der Grieschischen Religion, I,
1941, pp. 327 et seq.; some further information also in my
book on Poseidon und die Entstehung des griechischen
Goetterglaubens, 1950, p. 153.
In Aristotle this aspect of the politeia has been rather
distorted, in as much as he neglects the fact that, basically,
membership in the citizenry was assured by the right of
domicile, a right which was never contested, not even by the
oligarchs, as is well known. Compared to this basic right of
belonging to the citizenry, even the right to participate in the
assembly of the people must appear as secondary.
Pittacus belonged to the nobility at least through his
marriage with a woman of the Eupatridae family.
Diehl, Anthologia Lyrica Graeca, 1949, Pallas Athena,
Figs. 3, 4; patris, Figs. 2; 23, 9; 24, 8; eunomia, Figs. 3, 32.
How closely Peisistratos was related to the noble
caste is revealed by the assistance which the nobility of
Eretria, Thebes, and Argos gave him at his second return
to Athens. Further, the Archon lists by Meritt, Hesperia,
VIII, 1939, pp. 59 et seq. show that the Alcmaeonids lived
unharmed and unmolested in Athens up to the assassination
of Hipparchus and that they even held the highest positions.
Greek Cities during the Classical Epoch.
Their Political and Judicial Institutions;
Social and Economic Institutions
For a Greek of the 5th and 4th centuries B.C., the
city represented the ideal form of organization: he
associated it closely with his ideal of civilization. It
can be defined as an entirely independent community
of citizens, sovereign over all its members, cemented
together by cults, and governed by laws. Between
aristocracies and democracies one may note differ‐
ences of degree, but not of kind: their institutions
were built on common principles and the same general features can be easily perceived in the one as in
No Greek city, at this period, was "open." None
created many citizens who did not possess that status
by birth. All of them maintained in an inferior legal
status a large number of men who lived within their
The ideal of the city would certainly imply legal
equality between the citizens. But while aristocracies
distinguished between active and passive citizens, no
democracy, however advanced, ever realized, either