Political Sociology: A Reader

By S. N. Eisenstadt | Go to book overview
Archaeologischer Anzeiger, 1932, pp. 166 et seq.; ibid., 1933, pp. 245 et seq.; ibid., 1934, pp. 181 et seq.; 1935, pp. 234 et seq.; ibid., 1936, pp. 154 et seq.; ibid., 1937 pp. 167 et seq.
10.
A more detailed account will be found in my treatment in "Praehistorische Kulturen" and in my forthcoming book.
11.
In my opinion these names of places reached Greece from Cilicia and the Mesopotamian and Anatolian border region, partly along with the oldest cultural exchange, partly with the expansion during the Early Bronze period. More will be said on this point in my "Praehistorische Kulturen."
12.
Bossert, Altkreta, 3rd ed.; but it remains quite uncertain whether the fragments collected at this place actually belong together at all.
13.
Evans, The Palace of Minos, III, plate 18.
14.
Bossert, op. cit.
15.
Ibid.
16.
Evans, op. cit., II, pp. 563 et seq.
17.
Boull, Correspondence Hellenique; cf. also Bossert, op. cit.
18.
Cf. to this point my treatment in Klio, XXXII, 1939, pp. 261 et seq.; more detail in my forthcoming article "Praehistorische Kulturen."
19.
The German, Austrian, and Swiss scholars use the expression "Indo-Germanic" with the same meaning, but for objective reasons the expression "Indo-European" is to be preferred.
20.
On my stay in the Orient from 1917 to 1919 I had an opportunity to observe directly how the principle of personal (tribal) association works among the Mesopotamian Bedouins.
21.
In my opinion the house Nr. D of Asine has rightly been claimed as the residence of a lord (cf. Froedin-Persson, Asine, 1938, Figs. 42, 49, 47); the same is true for the central establishment of Malthi (Valmin, Swedish Messenia Expedition, 1938, pp. 77 et seq., figs. 19 et seq.).
22.
Cf. especially my treatment in Hethiter und Achaeer, 1935, pp. 158 et seq.
23.
Nilsson, Geschichte der Grieschischen Religion, I, 1941, pp. 327 et seq.; some further information also in my book on Poseidon und die Entstehung des griechischen Goetterglaubens, 1950, p. 153.
24.
In Aristotle this aspect of the politeia has been rather distorted, in as much as he neglects the fact that, basically, membership in the citizenry was assured by the right of domicile, a right which was never contested, not even by the oligarchs, as is well known. Compared to this basic right of belonging to the citizenry, even the right to participate in the assembly of the people must appear as secondary.
25.
Pittacus belonged to the nobility at least through his marriage with a woman of the Eupatridae family.
26.
Diehl, Anthologia Lyrica Graeca, 1949, Pallas Athena, Figs. 3, 4; patris, Figs. 2; 23, 9; 24, 8; eunomia, Figs. 3, 32.
27.
How closely Peisistratos was related to the noble caste is revealed by the assistance which the nobility of Eretria, Thebes, and Argos gave him at his second return to Athens. Further, the Archon lists by Meritt, Hesperia, VIII, 1939, pp. 59 et seq. show that the Alcmaeonids lived unharmed and unmolested in Athens up to the assassination of Hipparchus and that they even held the highest positions.

25
Greek Cities during the Classical Epoch.
Their Political and Judicial Institutions;
Social and Economic Institutions

André Aymard

For a Greek of the 5th and 4th centuries B.C., the city represented the ideal form of organization: he associated it closely with his ideal of civilization. It can be defined as an entirely independent community of citizens, sovereign over all its members, cemented together by cults, and governed by laws. Between aristocracies and democracies one may note differ‐

ences of degree, but not of kind: their institutions were built on common principles and the same general features can be easily perceived in the one as in the other.

No Greek city, at this period, was "open." None created many citizens who did not possess that status by birth. All of them maintained in an inferior legal status a large number of men who lived within their territory.

The ideal of the city would certainly imply legal equality between the citizens. But while aristocracies distinguished between active and passive citizens, no democracy, however advanced, ever realized, either

____________________
From André Aymard, "Greek Cities during the Classical Epoch: Their Political and Judicial Institutions" (English summary), Recueils de la Société Jean Bodin, La Ville, VI (1955), 67-68, and "Greek Cities during the Classical Epoch: Social and Economic Institutions" (English summary), Recueils de la Société Jean Bodin, La Ville, VII, (1955), 86-87. Reprinted by permission of the publisher.

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