"discredited oligarchy." Cf. Le finanze Repubblica fiorentina
(Florence, 1929), p. 620.
Balie, 2, 143-152; Paoli, op. cit., pp. 103-104.
C. C., 1 bis, fols. 19r, 32, 80r; G. Villani, XII, 2.
On November 30, 1342, Brienne appointed special
officials for the purpose of recovering communal property.
They were authorized to keep "unum registrum" in which
they were to inscribe all the property and rights ("bona
et iura") of the commune. Cf. Balie, 2, fols. 110-112. For
condemnations by these officials of individuals who had
usurped the property of the state, see ibid., 2, f. 165 (30
March 1343). For fines levied against the powerful Adimari
and Rossi families by these officials on the same charge,
see C. C., 1 bis, fols. 249, 276 (18 April, 14 May 1343).
Ibid., fols, 130, 209-221.
Balie, 2, fols. 58-63; Paoli, op. cit., pp. 25-30.
P. 25, f. 45 (3 December 1326); C. C., 1 bis, f. 357.
See also B. Barbadoro, op. cit., pp. 161-189, 207-211. When
the priorate invited Brienne to become Signore of the city,
the Bardi Company reduced their capital by half in order
to escape direct taxation which they knew he would establish
on the model of his predecessor, Charles of Calabria. Cf.
A. Sapori, Compagnie e mercanti di Firenze antica (Florence,
1955), p. XXIII.
Complaints to the despot were frequently concerned
with the regressive nature of Florentine taxation. Cf. Paoli, op. cit., p. 114, doc. 260; Balie, 2, f. 66. Revision of the tax
system was a commonplace under the rule of the despots.
Cf. P. Silva, Il governo di Pietro Gambacorta in Pisa (Pisa,
1912), pp. 116-117.
The Signoria, with the permission of the Duke of
Calabria, was granted the authority to suspend immunities
and privileges that formerly had been conferred upon certain
inhabitants of the contado. Cf. P., 23, f. 67 (9 February
1327). Brienne also appointed a special official to perform
this same function. Cf. Paoli, op. cit., p. 75. Severe fines,
ranging from 500 florins to 3,932 florins, were exacted from
members of the Ricci and Ricciardi families who did not
comply with this edict. Cf. C. C., 1, fols. 9r, 27 (October‐
Cf. footnote 24: P., 25, f. 70r. For a further analysis
of the effects of the policies of a despot upon the arti, see
N. Rodolico, Del Comune alla Signoria. Saggio sul governo
di Taddeo Pepoli in Bologna (Bologna, 1898), pp. 84 ff. In
1373, attempts were made to reintroduce this form of taxation. The advisors to the Signoria, however, were successful
in thwarting the passage of this measure. Cf. C. P., 12, f.
Cf. N. Rodolico, Il popolo minuto (Bologna, 1899),
p. 141; Paoli, op. cit., pp. 82-83; Balie, 2, fols. 92-93.
For the first time since the end of the preceding
century, large numbers of novi cives were admitted to office.
Cf. P., 32, f. 145.
See especially the document that records the pardon
of Jacabo, a wool-beater, who had been condemned to death
in 1318 by the "official foreigner of the Lana" for conspiring
with other workers against the masters of the guild. C. C., 1 bis, fols. 46-47 (19 December 1342). A certain Cione was
also granted dispensation by Brienne from the sentence of
death. He had been condemned by the Executor for instigating a conspiracy against the rule of the guilds. Ibid., f.
187r (16 February 1343). Two years earlier, the Councils of
the Commune had refused to take this action on his behalf. Appelli, 122, III, f. 25 (26 May 1341).
Upon payment of fines to the ducal treasury, certain
members of the Falconery, Pulci, Amadori and Corbizzi
families were pardoned. They had formerly been convicted
for having fought against their native city on the side of the
Emperor Henry VII in the year 1312. C. C., 1 bis, fols. 70-92.
A scion of the house of the Bardi was fined 500 florins
for attacking a popolano. C. C., 1 bis, f. 5r (19 October
1342). Two other members of the same family were condemned to pay a fine of 5,813 florins, along with a member
of the Rucellai clan, for peculation of communal funds. Ibid., f. 132r (18 January 1343). See also ibid., fols. 204r‐
205, 209-211. Members of the Adimari, Bordoni, Tornaquinci and Spini families who had posted bonds for fellow
members of the patriciate, were required to make payment
into the communal treasury when those for whom they were
responsible, defaulted. Ibid., fols. 175r, 211r.
M. Becker, "Gualtieri di Brienne e l'uso delle dispense
giudiziarie," Archivio Storico Italiano, CXIII (1955), pp.
245-251. These arbitrary and capricious actions of the despot
also served to intensify opposition to his rule.
Shortly after the overthrow of Brienne, the Republic
obligated itself to pay five per cent interest a year to those
who had loaned money to the despot. The total of these
loans was 41,480 florins. Cf. Provvisioni Duplicati, 7, 52r.
During the last month of the Duke's tenure, loans from the
Bardi family alone accounted for approximately one-fourth
of the monies paid into the treasury. C. C., 1 bis, f. 336 (22
July 1343). Less than a week before the outbreak of the
revolution against Brienne, a new estimo was imposed upon
the citizenry and a new prestanza was levied. Ibid., fols.
335-357 (20 July 1343).
Many of the leaders of the conspiracy against the
despot were members of the same families who had been
compelled to pay heavy fines and to make forced loans to
the ducal treasury. Cf. G. Villani, XII, 16 and footnote 59.
Every Russian principality of the Kievan period
was, in its political essence, a combination of a city‐
state and of the princely system of administration.
In most cases the princely authority, superimposed
upon the city, gradually took the lead. In Novgorod,
however, the historical process went in the opposite
direction, with the prince's role eventually reduced