Political Sociology: A Reader

By S. N. Eisenstadt | Go to book overview
his minister's advice. Others among his associates wanted to burn all valuables, but Chang Lu objected and sealed up the treasury, awaiting the arrival of Ts'ao Ts'ao (SKC Wei, 8, 24b).
52.
Ts'ao Ts'ao, delighted because the valuables at Pachung had not been tampered with, sent a messenger to comfort Chang Lu. Ts'ao Ts'ao entitled Chang Lu either as the General Who Protects the South (chen-nan chiang-chün) (HHS, 65, 7b) or as the General Who Protects the People (chen-min chiang-chün) (SKC Wei, 8, 25a). Chang Lu was enfeoffed either as the Marquis of Lang-chung (in modern Szechwan) (HHS, 65, 7b; SKC Wei, 8, 25a) or as the Marquis of Hsiang-p'ing (in modern Fengtien) (HYKC, 2, 4a).
53.
W. Eichhorn, op. cit., 331-352, describes the Taoist rebellion led by Sun En towards the end of the fourth and beginning of the fifth centuries. The Sun En rebellion had many of the characteristics of its Yellow Turban predecessors.
54.
Practices which the Taoists might have copied from their Buddhist contemporaries were the burning of incense, the bestowal of free food in the public houses, the memorizing of texts, the prohibition of wine drinking and the killing of animals in certain seasons, and the instructions to Taoist penitents to kowtow and reflect on past transgressions. (See Fukui Kōjun, op. cit., 138-142.)
55.
Tui Fu I fei Fo-seng-shih, 8a-b, as cited in KHMC,
56.
"Chang Ling was falsely called Teacher of Heaven. He thereby ridiculed and insulted man and the spirits, and his body suffered retribution.... By dealing in death, he (Chang Ling) profited in life; such was his deception of heaven and earth." (Pien-huo-lun, 2b-3a, as cited in HMC, 8.) "Chang Ling and Chang Lu deceitfully spoke demoniacal words and falsely composed prophetical books ... (Chang Lu and Chang Chüeh) deceived and misled the foolish people." (Chüeh-tui Fu I fei Fo-seng-shih, 6b-7a as cited in KHMC, 12.) "Chang Ling ... composed Taoist books, called himself the Primordial Origin of Great Purity (t'aich'ing hsüan-yüan) and thereby deluded the common people." (HYKC, 2, 3a. "The Taoist faith-healing methods were really without efficacy for curing illness. However, because of their lewdness and delusion, the petty people stupidly and ignorantly competed as one to serve them." (Commentary to SKC Wei, 8, 23b.) "He (Chang Chüeh) changed the aspect (of his teachings) towards deceit and delusion." (HHS, 61, 1b. "(Chang) Chüeh despatched his disciples throughout the four regions, and they went about deluding and deceiving." (Tzu-chih t'ung-chien, 58, 5a.) "Prior to this, the Yellow Turban master Chang Chüeh and others grasped the ways of heterodoxy and called themselves Great Worthies (ta-hsien) in order to deceive and dazzle the common people." (HHS, 44, 26b).

45
Some Reflections on the Decline of the
Ottoman Empire

Bernard Lewis

During the sixteenth century three major changes occurred, principally of external origin, which vitally affected the entire life of the Ottoman Empire. The first of these has already been mentioned—the halting of the Ottoman advance into Europe. This was an event comparable in some ways with the Closing of the Frontier in the United States—but with far more shattering impact. The Ottoman state had been born on the frontier between Islam and Byzantine Christendom; its leaders and armies had been march‐ warriors in the Holy War, carrying the sword and the faith of Islam into new lands. The Ottoman gazis and dervishes, like the pioneers and missionaries of the Americas, believed themselves to be bringing civilization and the true faith to peoples sunk in barbarism and unbelief—and like them

reaped the familiar rewards of the frontier warrior and the colonist. For the Ottoman state, the frontier had provided work and recompense both for its men of the sword and its men of religion and, in a deeper sense, the very raison d'être of its statehood. True, by the sixteenth century that state had already evolved from a principality of march-warriors into an Empire, but the traditions of the frontier were still deeply rooted in the military, social, and religious life of the Ottomans, and the virtual closing of the frontier to further expansion and colonization could not fail profoundly to affect them. The Ottoman systems of military organization, civil administration, taxation, and land tenure were all geared to the needs of a society expanding by conquest and colonization into the lands of the infidel. They ceased to correspond to the different stresses of a frontier that was stationary or in retreat. 1

While the great Ottoman war-machine, extended beyond its range, was grinding to a standstill in the

____________________
From The Emergence of Modern Turkey (London: Oxford University Press, 1968), pp. 26-36. Published under the auspices of the Royal Institute of International Affairs. Reprinted by permission of the publisher.

-308-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Political Sociology: A Reader
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 632

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.