exploiters, by the majority of those who were but yesterday wage slaves, is a matter comparatively so easy, simple and natural that it will cost far less bloodshed than the suppression of the risings of the slaves, serfs or wage labourers, and will cost the human race far less. And it is compatible with the diffusion of democracy over such an overwhelming majority of the nation that the need for any special machinery for suppression will gradually cease to exist. The exploiters are unable, of course, to suppress the people without a most complex machine for performing this duty; but the people can suppress the exploiters even with a very simple "machine"— almost without any "machine" at all, without any special apparatus—by the simple organisation of the armed masses (such as the Councils of Workers' and Soldiers' Deputies, we may remark, anticipating a little).
Finally, only under Communism will the State become quite unnecessary, for there will be no one to suppress—"no one" in the sense of a class, in the sense of a systematic struggle with a definite section of the population. We are not utopians, and we do not in the least deny the possibility and inevitability of excesses by individual persons, and equally the need to suppress such excesses. But, in the first place, for this no special machine, no special instrument of repression is needed. This will be done by the armed nation itself, as simply and as readily as any crowd of civilised people, even in modern society, parts a pair of combatants or does not allow a woman to be outraged. And, secondly, we know that the fundamental social cause of excesses which violate the rules of social life is the exploitation of the masses, their want and their poverty. With the removal of this chief cause, excesses will inevitably begin to "wither away." We do not know how quickly and in what stages, but we know that they will be withering away. With their withering away, the State will also wither away. Marx, without plunging into Utopia, defined more fully what can now be defined regarding this future epoch: namely, the difference between the higher and lower phases (degrees, stages) of Communist society.
Lecture to the Students of Hasanuddin University 1
... The British philosopher Bertrand Russell divides mankind at present into two groups, following two different philosophies. One group has faith in the Declaration of Independence of Thomas Jefferson, while the other group believes in the Communist Manifesto of Karl Marx....
Bertrand Russell is not partial to one or the other group. He only hopes that the competition between the followers of these two philosophies would not be determined on the battlefield. It should not be solved through the destruction of men by men, because of the signs we see now and which have also been observed by themselves, but at the end they want to
prove their stand by fighting one another, destroying one another in war.
Bertrand Russell said: Compete with each other, but do not try to reach a solution on the battlefield. Compete in a field that brings prosperity to mankind. Please compete and try to achieve prosperity of mankind by applying your respective ideas. Followers of Thomas Jefferson, please try to establish the prosperity of men according to your world of thought, and followers of Karl Marx, please try to bring prosperity to mankind. Those who will bring the greatest prosperity to men will prove to be the victors in this competition....
I do not agree with Bertrand Russell when he said that humanity only consists of these two groups. There is a third group, which numbers more than a billion, maybe even more than one and a half billion people—namely, the people who live under the flags of nationalism in Asia and Africa.____________________