Political Sociology: A Reader

By S. N. Eisenstadt | Go to book overview
22.
Ward and Rustow, op. cit.
23.
Bendix, op. cit.
24.
Holt and Turner, op. cit.
25.
Huntington, "Political Modernization," op. cit., p. 378.
26.
Ibid., pp. 401-408.
27.
J. P. Nettl, "The State as a Conceptual Variable," World Politics, XX, No. 4 (1968), 559-592.
28.
Ibid., pp. 565-566; Nettl's italics.
29.
Ibid., p. 560; our italics.
30.
Moore, op. cit.
31.
Ibid., p. xiii.
32.
S. M. Lipset and S. Rokkan, "Cleavage Structures, Party Systems and Voter Alignments: An Introduction," in Lipset and Rokkan, op. cit., pp. 1-64.
33.
On this project see V. R. Lorwin, "Historians and Other Social Scientists: The Comparative Study of Nation‐ Building in Western Societies," in S. Rokkan, ed., Comparative Research across Cultures and Nations (Paris: Mouton, 1968). A first report on an attempt at a systematization of data on electoral arrangements and party systems in these eleven countries (the five Nordic countries, the three BE-NE-LUX ones, Ireland, Switzerland, and Austria) will be found in S. Rokkan, "The Structuring of Mass Politics in the Smaller European Democracies," Comparative Studies in Society and History, X, No. 2 (1968), 173-210.
34.
Lipset and Rokkan, op. cit., pp. 44-46.
35.
Cf. the discussion of the conditions for the breakdown of European multiparty systems in Lipset and Rokkan, op. cit. pp. 50-56.
36.
A. Banks and R. Textor, A Cross-Polity Survey (Cambridge : M.I.T. Press, 1963).
37.
See the volumes listed in footnote 2 and especially Lucian Pye, Aspects of Political Development (Boston: Little, Brown, 1965), and "Political Systems and Political Development," in Rokkan, ed., Comparative Research across Cultures and Nations, op. cit., pp. 93-101.
38.
Cf. O. Cornblit, T. DiTella and E. Gallo, "A Model for Political Change in Latin America," Social Science Information, VII, No. 2 (1968), 13-48.
39.
See Rokkan, "The Structuring," op. cit., pp. 180-197.
40.
For a full statement of the assumptions and an initial discussion of the fit for the larger polities, see Lipset and Rokkan, "Cleavage Structure," op. cit., pp. 36-50.
41.
E. Rumpf, Nationalismus und Sozialismus, op. cit., Ch. 2.
42.
J. G. A. Pocock, "The Case of Ireland Truly Stated: Revolutionary Politics in a Context of Increasing Stabilization," Paper, Department of History, Washington University, St. Louis, 1966.
43.
See S. Rokkan, "Geography, Religion and Social Class: Cross-Cutting Cleavages in Norway," in Lipset and Rokkan, Party Systems, op. cit.
44.
See especially E. Jutikkala, "Political Parties in the Elections of Deputies to the Estate of Burgesses and the Estate of Farmers," Sitzungsber. der finn. Akad. Wiss. (1960), pp. 167-184, particularly at p. 175 ("one of the most striking examples of a geographical division of public opinion in any European country in modern time"); also O. Rantala, "The Political Regions of Finland," Scandinavian Political Studies, II (1967), 117-140. Erik Allardt has based a number of his ecological factor analyses on the regional demarcation originally established on the basis of the votes for Old Finns vs. Young Finns.
45.
For further details see Lipset and Rokkan, "Cleavage Structures," op. cit., pp. 44-46. Barrington Moore, Jr., focuses his theory of the conditions for the emergence of stable representative democracy on the alternative options for land-industry-state alliances; see Moore, op. cit., especially Ch. 7.
46.
See Rokkan, "Electoral Mobilization," op. cit., and S. Rokkan, ed., Data Archives for the Social Sciences (Paris and The Hague: Mouton, 1966).

63
Values and Social Change in Modern Japan

Robert N. Bellah

To me the real heroes of this early Meiji period, the real beginning of the whole modernization of Japan and of real democracy, are those who questioned the basic value system of Edo society and who sought to reform the fabric of social relations inherited from that society. In this context I would be inclined to value the enlightenment thinkers, Keimō Shisōka, quite highly and probably consider them more highly than any thinkers of the Jiyū‐ Minken Undō. Also I would include the Christians

who, as you know, played such an important role in many aspects of life in the Meiji period in questioning the old assumptions and in working for reforms at all kinds of levels. I would include in my list of heroes Ueki in his role of reformer of society, more than in his role of political ideologist of the Jiyū-Minken Undō and I especially think that Fukuzawa Yukichi is worthy of very serious attention. He is guilty of an explicit utilitarianism with respect to "Fukoku kyōhei," and yet I feel that his position goes much deeper than any such surface expression, that he was expressing a really revolutionary way of thinking about human relations basically in a non‐ political way, that he is not to be evaluated primarily as a political thinker but in terms of his role as a

____________________
From Robert N. Bellah, "Values and Social Change in Modern Japan," in Kiyoko Cho, ed., Asian Cultural Studies (Mitaka Tokyo: International Christian University, 1962), pp. 52-56. Reprinted by permission of the publisher and the author.

-411-

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