The Revolt against the West
The development of the nationalist movements in Asia and Africa occurred in three stages. The first can be identified with the "proto-nationalism" we have already considered. It was still preoccupied with saving what could be saved of the old, and one of its main characteristics was the attempt to re‐ examine and reformulate the indigenous culture under the impact of western innovation. The second stage was the rise of a new leadership of liberal tendencies, usually with middle-class participation— a change of leadership and objectives not inappropriately described by Marxist historiography as "bourgeois nationalism." Finally, there was the broadening of the basis of resistance to the foreign colonial power by the organization of a mass following among peasants and workers and the forging of links between the leaders and the people. Not surprisingly these developments proceeded at different paces in different countries, and could be complicated by the impact of an exceptional personality, such as Gandhi, who fitted uneasily into any recognized category of revolutionary leadership. They took place more slowly in countries such as India,
which pioneered the revolutionary techniques, and more quickly in countries where nationalist movements developing after the process of decolonization had begun could benefit from the precedent and example of the older areas of discontent. In Burma, for example, nationalist developments which in India lasted for almost three-quarters of a century were telescoped into the decade between 1935 and 1945, 1 while in the Belgian Congo, less than four years before it became independent in 1960, Lumumba was still content to ask for "rather more liberal measures" for the small Congolese élite within the framework of Belgian colonialism, and it was not until 1958 that he founded the first mass party on a territorial basis, the Mouvement National Congolais. 2 Nevertheless there is a clear pattern running through the nationalist movements, and the sequence observable in Asia and Africa seems in all essentials to be the same; in most cases, also, the three stages of development can be identified with the policies and actions of specific leaders.
The process of change is clearest in India. Here the representative names are Gokhale, Tilak and Gandhi, and the stages of development correspond fairly accurately to the three periods in the history of Congress: 1885-1905, 1905-1919, 1920-1947. In its earlier phase Congress was little more than____________________