die Gesetzgeber," in: Freiheit der Persönlichkeit (series of
broadcasts by a team of lecturers), Kroner, Stuttgart, 1958.
S. Landshut, "Wandlungen der parlamentarische Demokratie," Hamburger Jahrbuch, Year 4, pp. 150-162.
See, for example, Parliamentary Reform, 1933-58; a
Survey of Suggested Reforms, Hansard Society for Parliamentary Government, 1956.
J. H. Kaiser, Die Repräsentation organisierter Interessen, Berlin, Duncker und Humblot, 1956; valuable work
which supersedes all earlier ones on the same subject.
Carl Joachim Friedrich, Demokratie als Herrschafts-
und Lebensform, Heidelberg, Quelle und Meyer, 1959,
Chapter VII. A development of some lectures given in
Heidelberg, based on his previous book, The New Belief in
the Common Man.
Bibliography on the subject is not scarce. There is a
concise and very instructive study by Gunnar Heckscher,
"Pluralist Democracy: the Swedish Experience," Social
Research, December 1948. On the other hand, I am unacquainted (a common misfortune for intellectuals in our part
of the world) with another book by this author which has
been translated into French, bearing the extremely explicit
title: Démocracie Efficace: l'Expérience Politique et Sociale
des Pays Scandinaves (Paris, Presses Universitaires de France,
G. Myrdal, Beyond the Welfare State, New Haven
(Conn.), Yale University Press, 1960.
R. M. Titmuss, Essays on the Welfare State, London,
Allen and Unwin, 1958.
E. Forsthoff, Verfassungsprobleme der Sozialstaats,
Some interesting material on this subject has been
collected in a book by the Chilean economist Luis Escobar
Cerdá, Organización para el Desarrollo Económico, Santiago
de Chile, Editorial Universitaria S.A., 1961. However, the
task is only at its beginning.
Karl Jaspers, Die Atombombe und die Zukunft des
Menschen, Munich, R. Piper, 1948, p. 441.
R. Braibanti and J. J. Spengler, eds., Tradition, Values, and Socioeconomic Development, Duke University Press,
1961, p. 139.
David E. Apter and C. Rosberg, "Some Models of
Political Change in Contemporary Africa" in: The Political
Economy of Contemporary Africa, Washington, D.C.,
National Institute of Social and Behavioral Sciences, edited
by D. P. Ray, 1959, and in other writings, especially by the
first of these authors.
See Almond and Coleman, eds., The Politics of the
Developing Areas, Princeton University Press, 1960.
El Desarrollo Económico Programado y la Organización Política (ST/ECLA/CONF.6/L.C-2b and Add.1).
Boletin Económico de América Latina, VI, No. 1
(March 1961), p. 64.
See A. Bergstrdsser, Führung in der modernen Welt,
Freiburg, Rombach, 1961.
Lectures at the University of Córdoba, Argentina,
See an excellent general account by Alfred Christmann,
"Die Gewerkschaften in der industriellen Gesellschaft," in: Hamburger Jahrbuch, Year. 5.
André Philip, "Les Syndicats et la Démocratie
Économique," Revue de l'Institut de Sociologie, Brussels,
Nos. 1-2, 1961.
The journal of the Institut Solvay (1961, Abs. 1-2)
contains a number of contributions to a symposium held in
Geneva (May 1960) on this subject. Some are very valuable.
But for a Latin American, the most interesting perhaps is
that by Alain Touraine, "Situations Ouvrières et Types de
Démocratie Economique"—not only, of course, because he
expressly mentions some Spanish-American phenomena (loc. cit., p. 40).
Juan J. Linz
Before defining an authoritarian regime, let us
refer briefly to the conceptions of democracy and
totalitarianism from which we start in our compara‐
tive analysis. This is particularly important since
many authoritarian systems claim to be "organic,"
"basic," "selective," or "guided" democracies, or at
least to govern for the people, if not in fact to be
"people's" democracies. We consider a government
democratic if it supplies regular constitutional opportunities for peaceful competition for political power