BIBLIOGRAPHIC NOTE. There is no sociological or even political science analysis of the institutions and operations of the Franco regime. Most of the literature on contemporary Spain deals with the historical background of the Civil War, the well-known books by: Gerald Brenan, Spanish Labyrinth (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1943); Salvador de Madariaga, Spain. A Modern History (New York: Praeger Paperbacks, 1958); Hugh Thomas, The Spanish Civil War (New York: Harper, 1961); Franz Borkenau, The Spanish Cockpit; D. C. Cattell, Communism and the Spanish Civil War (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1955). None of these works is written with a pro-Franco point of view. For that the reader has to turn to Joaquin Arraras, Historia de la Cruzada Española (Madrid, 1940—3, 35 vols.) and his Historia de la Segunda Reptrblica Española (Madrid: Editora Nacional, 1956).
For a good general history of modern Spain until the Republic see: Vicens Vives, J. Nadal, R. Ortega, M. Hernandez Sanchez Barba, Vol. IV of the Historia Social de España y America (Barcelona: Editorial Teide, 1959).
A very important book whose analysis of the early stages of the Franco regime is better documented than most sources in English—that focus on the Republican side—is Carlos M. Rama, La Crisis Española del Siglo XX (Mexico: Fondo de Cultura Económica, 1960).
The literature on Spain after the civil war, both journalistic and scholarly, is largely focused on Spanish foreign policy, but does not add much to the understanding of domestic politics. While, as the title indicates, this is also the focus of Arthur P. Whitaker, Spain and the Defense of the West. Ally and Liability (New York: Praeger Paperbacks, 1962), it contains a lot of material on the basis of the regime, the opposition groups, from the semitolerated ones to the Communists, economic policies, etc. We mentioned already the important work of Stanley Payne, Falange, but by focusing on only one element in the system, it can only give an incomplete picture. Ebenstein's study of the Church is also useful. Richard Pattee, This Is Spain (Milwaukee: Bruce, 1951), is a presentation from a point of view friendly to Catholic political forces within the Regime, but has no scholarly pretensions. For the basic constitutional texts of the Regime until 1945 see Clark, op. cit., translations in English.
Toward a Theory of Spanish American
Richard M. Morse
nor to construct a mature theory which will comprehensively illuminate it. The histories of these eighteen countries are, taken singly, too fragmentary and, taken jointly, too uncorrelated to permit of so systematic a project. In this as in most areas of New World studies the elements for conclusive synthesis are still unavailable. Therefore a heuristic device____________________