The Chinese Revolution: The New
The historical feature of the Chinese revolution consists in the two steps to be taken, democracy and socialism, and the first step is now no longer democracy in a general sense, but democracy of the Chinese type, a new and special type—New Democracy. How, then, is this historical feature formed? Has it been in existence for the past hundred years, or is it only of recent birth?
If we only make a brief study of the historical development of China and of the world we shall understand that this historical feature did not emerge as a consequence of the Opium War, but began to take shape only after the first imperialist world war and the Russian October Revolution. Let us now study the process of its formation.
Evidently, the colonial, semi-colonial and semi‐ feudal character of present-day Chinese society determines that two steps must be taken in the Chinese revolution. The first step is to change a society that is colonial, semi-colonial and semi-feudal into an independent, democratic society. The second step is to develop the revolution further and build up a socialist society. In the present Chinese revolution we are taking the first step.
The preparatory period for taking the first step began from the Opium War in 1840, i.e. from the time when Chinese society started to change from a feudal into a semi-colonial and semi-feudal society.
The movement of the T'aip'ing Heavenly Kingdom, the Sino-French War, the Sino-Japanese War, the Reformist Movement of 1898, the Revolution of 1911, the May 4 Movement, the Northern Expedition, the War of the Agrarian Revolution and the present Anti-Japanese War—these numerous stages have altogether taken up a whole century and, from a certain point of view, represent the first step taken by the Chinese people on different occasions and in various degrees to fight against imperialism and the feudal forces, to strive to build up an independent, democratic society and to complete the first revolution. The Revolution of 1911 was the beginning of that revolution in a fuller sense. In its social character, that revolution is bourgeois-democratic rather than proletarian-socialist. That revolution is not yet completed and great efforts are still required because the enemies of the revolution are still very strong. When Dr. Sun Yat-sen said: "The revolution is not yet completed, all my comrades must strive on," he was referring to such a bourgeois-democratic revolution.
A change, however, occurred in the Chinese bourgeois-democratic revolution after the outbreak of the first imperialist world war in 1914 and the founding of a socialist state on one-sixth of the globe through the Russian October Revolution in 1917.
Before these events, the Chinese bourgeois‐ democratic revolution belonged to the category of the old bourgeois-democratic world revolution, and was part of that revolution.
After these events, the Chinese bourgeois-democratic revolution changes its character and belongs____________________