See, for example, the dispatch by John Hughes in the Christian Science Monitor, December 10, 1965.
New York Times, December 13, 1965, p. 31.
It was almost two months after the coup before the
brief document, the Burmese Way to Socialism, appeared. It
was written hastily after the seizure of power and all subsequent documents have sought to fill in the details and
omissions in order to make the ideology both logically consistent and a guide to action on all questions arising out of
the pragmatic pursuit of socialism.
The Guardian, January 19, 1965, p. 1; ibid., January
30, 1965, p. 1.
Ibid., April 2, 1965, p. 1; Forward, III, 17 (April 15,
1965), p. 6.
Forward, op. cit., pp. 5-6. Although 754 private schools
remained unaffected by the decree, in due course, they too,
will be taken over. See the Guardian, April 2, 1965, p. 1.
Forward, III, 18 (May 1, 1965), p. 2. This was an extension of the Tenancy Act of 1963 and repealed all previous
laws relating to tenancy. According to the government, as
of June 30, 1963, there were 1.1 million tenants paying K13
million to about 350,000 landlords; and about one third of
the latter were non-nationals.
For an example of the government's effort to prove
that shortages no longer existed, see the Guardian, August
8, 1965, p. 1 lead story on longyi production.
Forward, III, 15 (March 15, 1965), p. 13.
The Guardian, June 14, 1965, p. 4 (editorial).
Forward, III, 20 (June 1, 1965), p. 2.
New York Times, September 19, 1965. The decree
applied to four nations: the United States, Great Britain,
India, and the USSR. In the period prior to the coup in
1962, the Russians maintained the smallest and least influential library of the four nations.
The most important American delegation to visit Burma
came in December when the group led by Senator M. Mansfield visited Burma and held talks with the Burmese leaders.
A transit visa may be obtained if the traveler is
changing planes. Only 24 hours transit time is allowed to
make the change.
See United Nations, Economic Survey of Asia and the
Far East 1963, p. 163, for a good brief summary of the terms
of the agreement.
The Guardian, March 7, 1965, p. 1.
Ibid., August 19, 1965, p. 1.
Ibid., August 23, 1965, p. 1.
The Guardian, March 14, 1965, p. 1. A discordant note
was sounded in March when a book appeared in Laos, identified as published in China, which was critical of the military
government in Burma for parroting the "Moscow Revisionist
Line." It appealed to the peace-loving people of Burma not
to "let your country become an historical inconsistency."
The Peking government denied publication of the book, but
the Burmese government did not silence the press in heralding its appearance.
Forward, III, 17 (April 15, 1965), p. 5.
Ibid., III, 19 (May 15, 1965), p. 10.
The Guardian, August 25, 1965, p. 1.
Forward, III, 19 (May 15, 1965), p. 11.
The Guardian, August 14, 1965, p. 1.
Ibid., February 12, 1965, p. 1.
Forward, III, 12 (February 1, 1965), p. 2.
Ibid., III, 19 (May 15, 1965), p. 14.
Kwame Nkrumah's first important publication
twenty years ago was inspired by Lenin's theory of
imperialism. The publication came to be entitled Toward Colonial Freedom. Nkrumah's last publication in office is his new book, Neo-Colonialism: The
Last Stage of Imperialism.
1 That too owes its doctrinal inspiration to Lenin's theory of imperialism.
There is little doubt that, quite consciously,
Nkrumah saw himself as an African Lenin. He
wanted to go down in history as a major political
theorist—and he wanted a particular stream of
thought to bear his own name. Hence the term
"Nkrumahism"—a name for an ideology that he
hoped would assume the same historic and revolu‐
tionary status as "Leninism." The fountainhead of
both Nkrumahism and Leninism was to remain Marxism—but these two streams that flowed from
Marx were to have a historic significance in their
Like Lenin, Nkrumah created "the Circle"—a
group of friends to discuss ideas and formulate
theories of revolution. Like Lenin, Nkrumah encouraged the emergence of a Marxist newspaper
called Spark. It is true that The Spark in Ghana
came to be more purist in its Marxism than
Nkrumah himself. Nevertheless, the idea of such a
newspaper was directly inspired by Iskra (Spark),
the Marxist paper which was founded in 1901
through Lenin's initiative.
But while Nkrumah strove to be Africa's Lenin,
he also sought to become Ghana's Czar. Nor is