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ASSESSMENT FOR BEHAVIOR CHANGE

We have stressed the fundamental unity between the experimenter's activities and those of the assessor and therapist, but there is a critical difference between them. In experiments it is the experimenter who thinks about what he wants to study; he selects and defines his independent variable and the dependent measures for assessing the effects of his treatment manipulations. He may begin with more interest in the dependent variable--for example, self-control or aggression--and inquire into the effects of various manipulations on it. Or he can start by focusing on the independent variable, say the effects of exposure to particular influence procedures. The experimenter must select for measurement and manipulation events that represent those in which he is interested and with which he claims to be concerned. The operations for specifying the exact content and measurement of the variables in the experiment are assessments and they entail many of the same steps and problems involved in the clinical assessment of the individual case.

In most clinical situations, in contrast, it is the "subject" or client who must define the problematic behaviors and the objectives he seeks. In that sense he assumes something of the role of the scientist who must delineate his problems. The most urgent goal in assessment is to design the treatments required by the client's problems. The person usually presents a global description of general malaise or perhaps numerous complaints in a variety of areas; consequently the first assessment task is to develop a priority list of specific problems and to delineate the appropriate treatment for each. This presupposes that different problems require different treatment and that specific treatments can be

-235-

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Personality and Assessment
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Preface vii
  • Contents ix
  • Introduction to the Republished Edition xiii
  • 1 - Introduction 1
  • 2 - Consistency and Specificity in Behavior 13
  • 3 - Traits and States As Constructs 41
  • 4 - Personality Correlates 73
  • 5 - Utility 103
  • 6 - Principles of Social Behavior 149
  • 7 - Behavior Change 193
  • 8 - Assessment for Behavior Change 235
  • 9 - Personality and Prediction 281
  • References 303
  • Author Index 339
  • Subject Index 347
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