The Foundations of Psychiatry

By Silvano Arieti | Go to book overview

CHAPTER 13

GROWTH
AND DEVELOPMENT
DURING THE TODDLER YEARS

John A. Sours

THE TODDLER YEARS commence at about 10 to 14 months, with the beginning of creeping and crawling movements, and extend to the third year, when the child has developed the motor skills, language, cognitive activities, and defenses sufficient for separation-individuation and the autonomy needed for the nursery school experience. * This developmental interval is also referred to as the anal-muscular phase; developmentally it lies between the oral phase and the phallic-oedipal phase.

During the anal-muscular phase the child grows from lap babyhood to toddlerhood. Erikson refers to this phase as one of autonomy versus shame and guilt.10 The erogenous zone has shifted from the mouth to the anusrectum with the development of anal ero

tism29 and a conflicting biological mode— namely, fecal retention and elimination.10 The phase is characterized by vigorous self-assertion in the service of separation-individuation and autonomy.42 The toddler strives for independence as a separate individual with his own identity in the family group.5,28 The child acquires a sense of autonomy to combat his sense of doubt and shame. His physical, psychological, and social dependency, however, fosters doubts about his capacity and freedom to assert himself. His urge to prove muscular strength and mobility is ever present. It is hard for him to stay in one activity or space. He wants to explore and accomplish new feats and skills. He is now increasingly capable of controlling his anal and urinal sphincters. His diet has been changed so that his stools are harder, and they are easier to control.

____________________
*
See references 3, 7, 8, 9, 10, 38, 42, 46, 53, 54, and 55 in the Bibliography at the end of this chapter.

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
The Foundations of Psychiatry
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 1270

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.