This book developed over a number of years and reflects many influences, criticisms, and kindnesses. Institutional support was received from New York University through its Arts and Sciences Research Fund, Schools of Business Research Fund, and Institute of Labor Relations; and in the last stage, there has been a healthy spillover of ideas from work on formal characteristics of technology carried out under a grant to me from the National Science Foundation. A grant from Resources for the Future, Inc., assisted at an early stage of the research. John Jay College of the City University of New York provided support in the final stages of the work, and the University of California at Berkeley in intermediate stages. I owe a special debt to the University of Cambridge for the many courtesies extended to me over a sabbatical year and several summers in residence. Individual acknowledgments are an incomplete index of the intellectual support and renewed education that I received there. Perhaps I am a slow learner or perhaps it was the strength of my original neoclassical education, but it took some years for me to realize the power of the tradition and style of work which derive from and extend Keynes's original insights into the driving forces of capitalism. I have tried to write about how the system works and might be controlled rather than about how a system would have to work were the ideological claims made on its behalf to be realized.
Many individuals have left a mark on this book. I would like particularly to thank Tony Atkinson, Will Baumol, Alex Belinfante, Christopher Bliss, John Eatwell, Robin Marris, James Meade, Hy Minsky, Geoff Heale, David Newbury, and Joan Robinson for thoughts and criticism on the theoretical analysis along with Pat Albin, Roger Alcaly, Bennett Harrison, Carol Jusenius, Bob Mier, John Mason, and Thomas Vietorisz for guidance on matters of political economy.
The sections on poverty and public assistance reflect a long and productive collaboration with Bruno Stein, and the sections on educational policy borrow from joint work with Shirley Johnson. Finally, much material on macroeconomic policy was developed in the course of my