The Style of Growth in Modern
THE lesson of the preceding chapter is that growth and sustained productivity increase are to a very large extent the outcomes of processes involving technical advances as innovated, implemented, and adapted by a sophisticated and highly educated work force. In the United States, the organization of this work force tends to be under what has been labeled "technostructure" planning control. This style of organization is associated particularly with firms that possess dominating market power. Such organization can be creative; it can also mobilize resources effectively and adapt to new developments with remarkable effectiveness but one should not presume that this creativity, efficiency and effectiveness will be focused on social reconstruction. On the contrary, their style of technical development can be such that growth will tend to be encapsulated within dominant firms and exclude the rest of the society.
These associations are intrinsic to the industrial process and would seem to apply in most, if not all, advanced systems whether capitalist or socialist. In the United States the class of technically progressive enterprises overlaps the class of large firms with dominant market positions: i.e., the Fortune-listed firms, the major firms in oligopolistic industries, the major technology developers. Of course the overlap is not perfect; there are declining and stagnant larger firms, and a significant number of the brightest and newest technologies emanate from vigorously competitive, vest pocket enterprises on their way up. But it is the general pattern