Schooling Students Placed at Risk: Research, Policy, and Practice in the Education of Poor and Minority Adolescents

By Mavis G. Sanders | Go to book overview

1990). All of these activities could directly benefit students through the support provided to them or their families -- support that, in turn, can positively influence attitudes and behaviors linked to academic success.

Such interactions between the overlapping spheres that influence a child's growth and learning are important early in, and throughout, a child's development and educational career. With this combined support, perhaps fewer youths will develop the patterns of school failure that negatively impact their school behavior, beliefs about their academic ability, and, ultimately, academic achievement. This study further suggests that welldesigned and implemented partnership activities, which are part of a comprehensive program of school, family, and community partnership (see Sanders & Epstein, chap. 15, this volume), may be especially important for subsets of the African-American male and female student populations. These include students who live below poverty level and those who are older than modal grade age.


REFERENCES

Allen W. ( 1979). "Family roles, occupational statues, and achievement among Black women in the United States". Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 4, 670-686.

Bollen K. ( 1989). Structural equation with latent variables. New York: Wiley.

Campbell A. ( 1987). "Self definition by rejection: The Case of gang girls". "Social Problems", 34(5), 451-466.

Coates D. L. ( 1987). Gender differences in the structure and support characteristics of Black adolescents social networks. Sex Roles, 17(11/12), 667-687.

Coleman J. S. ( 1987). Families and Schools. Educational Researcher, 16(6), 32-38.

Consortium for Research on Black Adolescence. ( 1990). Black adolescence: Current issues and annotated bibliography. Boston: G. K. Hall & Co.

Dryfoos J. ( 1994). Full service schools: A revolution in health and social services for children, youth and families. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Epstein J. ( 1987). "Toward a theory of family-school connections: Teacher practices and parent involvement". In K. Hurrelmann, F. Kaufmann and F. Losel (eds.), "Social intervention: Potential and constraints" (pp. 121-136). New York: DeGruyter.

Epstein J. ( 1992). School and family partnerships. In Encyclopedia of educational research (pp. 1139-1151). New York: MacMillan.

Epstein J. ( 1995). School/family/community partnerships: Caring for the children we share. Phi Delta Kappan, 76 (9), 701-712.

Ford D. Y. ( 1992). The American achievement ideology as perceived by urban African American students: Explorations by gender and academic program. Urban Education, 27(2), 196-211.

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