1990). All of these activities could directly benefit students through the support provided to them or their families -- support that, in turn, can positively influence attitudes and behaviors linked to academic success.
Such interactions between the overlapping spheres that influence a child's growth and learning are important early in, and throughout, a child's development and educational career. With this combined support, perhaps fewer youths will develop the patterns of school failure that negatively impact their school behavior, beliefs about their academic ability, and, ultimately, academic achievement. This study further suggests that welldesigned and implemented partnership activities, which are part of a comprehensive program of school, family, and community partnership (see Sanders & Epstein, chap. 15, this volume), may be especially important for subsets of the African-American male and female student populations. These include students who live below poverty level and those who are older than modal grade age.
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