understanding of key theories on student motivation (see Covington, 1992, for a review of these theories), and practical knowledge about how and when to use these theories to motivate students. Third, teachers need an understanding of the effects of negative environmental and social factors, such as violence and drug and alcohol abuse, on students' school behavior and performance. This understanding should always be current so professional development in this area should be flexible and responsive to significant national and local trends. Finally, teachers need to be trained in how to work more effectively with parents, especially at the secondary school level (see Sanders & Epstein, chap. 15, this volume). If professional development were redefined to be inclusive of this knowledge, then all teachers would be better prepared to assume the roles played by the African- American teachers in this study. Teachers would understand their students from a uniquely professional perspective that would help them establish the mutual trust and respect necessary for successful teaching and learning.
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